Thank you! Your submission has been received!
Oops! Something went wrong while submitting the form
There are currently no Help notes in this section.
Search our directory of businesses across the region by product, type of business and more.
Browse the Caribbean Export Development Agency document library by date, country, product & keyword
CaribExport has developed a short, practical, commercially-led guidance manual on how best to profile...
Contact the Trade & Business Intelligence Department directly for further assistance.
Links to many other resources on the internet for regional organizations, trade support, and more
Browse the Caribbean Export / Caribbean Association of Investment Promotion Agencies Investment Map
Browse the information critical to making investment decisions. Browse by sector and country to view the data.
Browse the investment opportunities available across the region. Select a sector to view results.
Each market is different, choose your market and learn more about your packaging.
Each market is different, choose your market and learn more about meeting safety standards.
Learn about the Organizations that are involved in food export across the Region
Learn how to get your business ready for Angel Investment and find interested investors.
Search for finance opportunities and services across the Region by type, country, and institution
Analyse the trade between two countries of a particular product and where they rank in the World.
Browse the World Bank's Economy & Growth indicators on an Interactive Playable World Map.
Find out the markets that rank the highest in the World for importing your product.
Need to know more about the market? Browse the World Fact Book to view a country's profile.
Select a product, origin and destination to get a quick market pointer summary.
View the latest trade news from the World Trade Organization, the International Trade Centre and many more.
Important documents are listed here for download.
After a long period of stagnating prices, the global bauxite market is experiencing changes which are expected to drive prices higher. To a large extent, these changes are driven by increasing demand from Chinese manufacturing. However, constraints on exports imposed by major bauxite producers, such as Indonesia and India have affected the supply side as well, and represent an opportunity for Caribbean bauxite exporters to increase their share of a growing market. This Policy Brief provides an overview of the aforementioned changes in market conditions and proposes a new approach to organizing bauxite mining for the Caribbean bauxite exporters.
While citizen security has become an ever-increasing concern for many Caribbean countries, the magnitude of the problem has not been matched with an equally robust response in terms of research. Cross-national studies on the prevalence, causes, and effects of violence in the region are few. Empirical studies showing which policies have worked to reduce crime in the Caribbean are even scarcer. This volume analyses new data collected in household and business victimization surveys. These surveys allow us to understand crime from a primary source—the victims themselves. As such, this study goes beyond much of the existing literature, which relies primarily on police data. It contributes new information to our understanding of crime patterns, victim profiles, determinants of particular types of crime, and directions for crime reduction in the region.
Unclogging the Arteries: The Impact of Transport Costs on Latin American and Caribbean Trade exemplifies this commitment and is the first in a series of reports that the Integration and Trade Sector of the Inter-American Development Bank is preparing on this important agenda. The report combines a robust technical analysis using large and detailed databases with a series of case studies that provide vivid accounts of the problems on the ground. This combination of approaches gives a comprehensive view of the significance of transport costs as a barrier to trade in the region. The report calls for a broader and more balanced integration agenda, which would focus not only on the traditional barriers to trade, but also on costs, such as those associated with transport-related infrastructure.
The Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) in conjunction with European Union (EU) and the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) established a project to contribute to the improvement of livelihoods along the Root and Tuber Crop Commodity Chains in the Caribbean through appropriate marketing and production technologies.
The objectives of the project are:
i. To increase the demand for fresh and value-added products of the selected root and tuber crops in the local and regional markets.
ii. To strengthen existing production groups and the formation of clusters that will improve the activities along the commodity value chains.
iii. To improve the knowledge and skill of actors along the value chains through training in and dissemination of production, post- harvest, processing, and marketing techniques
iv. To produce and distribute high quality planting materials of cassava, sweet potato and yam through the establishment of appropriate propagation facilities
v. To demonstrate and, as necessary, validate technological innovations in root and tuber crop production and use
This market analysis is an output of objective (i) above and focuses on selected root and tuber crops, namely, cassava, sweet potato, yam and coco yam in the CARICOM Region as well as on their export to the USA, Canada and the United Kingdom.
This Best Practice Manual is the result of extensive outreach and analysis conducted to identify the leading state and local-level best practices in renewable energy and energy efficiency programmes in African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. The brochure describes in the region 19 of these best practices, and includes examples of their effective implementation in countries or cities across the ACP region. These include policies, regulations, capacity-building initiatives and financing mechanisms to create favourable market conditions for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects, as well as for their replicability, relative ease of implementation, measured energy savings, ability to offset the need for conventional energy, cost effectiveness, greenhouse gas emissions reduction and to enhance gender equity and job creation.
The study analyzes each CARICOM country’s trade relationship with the Dominican Republic, finding business opportunities for certain products that are currently not imported from CARICOM countries into the Dominican Republic. The methodology used to compile this list of opportunities involved a comparison of current exports from each CARICOM country to the Dominican Republic and each CARICOM country’s total exports to the rest of the world in the last five years. This was later narrowed down by eliminating products which the DR would not typically import, and incorporating expert opinions and results from interviews. The main finding of this study is that there is plenty of opportunities to broaden trade relationships between the Dominican Republic and the CARICOM countries, and will require a better and broader flow of information between the countries.
This study examined the potential for an increased flow of agro-processed goods and professional services between CARIFORUM states and Curaçao. Specifically, the study was required to examine the current trading activity and trends between CARIFORUM Countries and Curaçao; identify the business opportunities within the agro-processing sector and professional services for each market; make recommendations to improve the regulatory framework and to remove the impediments to trade between these countries and identify the extent to which CARIFORUM goods and services could access the EU market through Curaçao.
The report provides findings and recommendations that will benefit Caribbean Export and the CARIFORUM – FCOR - OCT Task Force on Trade and Investment in formulating strategies and policy responses that are targeted at deepening the level of trade and investment between CARIFORUM states and Curaçao.
This CBI market survey profiles the coffee, tea and cocoa market in the EU. The coffee, tea and cocoa markets in individual EU countries are discussed in separate market surveys. These market surveys, as well as EU export marketing guidelines for coffee, tea and cocoa can be downloaded from http://www.cbi.eu/marketinfo.
Guyana is a country with abundant mineral wealth. Extractive industries, along with agriculture, drive the economy. Mining poses several inherent challenges due to its negative impact on the environment, its relatively high level of capital intensity compared to other main productive activities, and the heavy enforcement demands on understaffed and underfunded regulatory institutions, especially when the vast majority of miners are highly dispersed artisanal, small, medium-scale (ASM) miners. This paper surveys recent developments and trends in the Guyanese gold mining sector, the most important of the five mining subsectors, and analyses the issues surrounding the transition to more environmentally sustainable mining practices. Perverse incentives exist between maximizing private profits, honoring government royalty payments, generating gainful employment, on the one hand, and overcoming the economic and cost constraints of complying with environmentally responsible and sustainable practices in the ASM sector, on the other. The paper makes recommendations on how to better align incentives, especially to bridge the financing and knowledge gaps, to permit optimal extraction of the resource, promote environmental sustainability, and improve public–private collaboration.
Despite their economic significance, MSMEs face challenges that hinder their growth and development. It is therefore critical and logical, that the Government of Jamaica (GOJ) place MSME development at the forefront of the country’s economic policy agenda. The MSME and Entrepreneurship Policy provides a coordinated, coherent and targeted framework and this review of the 2013 Policy reflects an updated policy framework designed to support the growth of MSMEs.
The study examined the degree to which Caribbean Entertainment products and services have grown among the islands and have extended into wider international markets. For purposes of the present exercise, the Entertainment Sector is comprised of Caribbean festivals of ‘Mas’ or Trinidad Style carnivals, Reggae, Jazz and Creole Music Festivals, Music – Reggae, Dancehall, Calypso, Soca, Chutney, Parang, Creole, Zouk and Spouge - Film and other Audio-visual Production. Five countries were specifically targeted in deriving primary data: Barbados, Dominica, Jamaica, St. Lucia and Trinidad and Tobago. A topic guide was used in the conduct of interviews among key protagonists and institutions in these countries. A small number of entertainers and other key informants were interviewed.
The study was conducted within 9 selected CARIFORUM and 6 EU member states (UK, France, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands and Ireland) over a period of 5 months in 2010. The study comprised extensive desk research, meetings with stakeholders, and included a validation work shop staged in Barbados in July 2010. Outlines some of the main characteristics of the prevailing policies governing investment and trade in services within the EU, with particular focus on 6 EU member states, viz. the UK, France, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands and Ireland. Summarizes their ease of doing business, their priorities for both inward and outward investment with respect to the services sectors and their respective frameworks for investment support, while noting existing and potential linkages with the CARIFORUM economies.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Guyana. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Guyana.
Paper presented by Virginia Maria Roca Pezzotti at the 2nd Meeting of the Caribbean Design Network, December 10, 2009, Dominican Republic entitled "Development and Current Status of Dominican Crafts
Paper presented by Virginia Maria Roca Pezzotti at the 2nd Meeting of the Caribbean Design Network, December 10, 2009, Dominican Republic updating on the progress made in the Haiti National Design Network.
Paper presented by Jennifer Julien-Laudat at the 2nd Meeting of the Caribbean Design Network, December 10, 2009, Dominican Republic entitled "National Designers Brainstorming Meetings Report".
Paper presented by Patti Johnson at the 2nd Meeting of the Caribbean Design Network, December 10, 2009, Dominican Republic.
Paper presented by Lesley-Ann Noel at the 2nd Meeting of the Caribbean Design Network, December 10, 2009, Dominican Republic entitled "Trinidad and Tobago Design Network"
So trade policy has expanded, has become much more complex. Hence the focus in this assessment, not just on market opening, multilateral trade policy, etc, but also on questions of development, transparency and legitimacy, the impact on key sectors, and social / societal questions. This can reveal for how far trade policy drives our collective preferences, and also the point of interaction with the preferences of others. This paper therefore sets out six groups of topics where we have focused our efforts under the Prodi Commission:1 Multilateralism; 2 Opening of markets; 3: Development; 4: Transparency / legitimacy; 5: Key sectors; 6: Social / societal Questions.
This study highlights potential areas for mutual growth in the goods and services sectors and possible improvements to the regulatory framework. Ways in which CARIFORUM goods could gain access to the EU via the French Caribbean Outermost Regions (FCORs) are also analysed.
Each country/territory report provides details on: Socioeconomic characteristics of each country/territory; Proximity to main international destinations; Critical information relating to doing business – regulatory environment, tax rates, procedure for starting a business, etc; Commitments made under the EPA; Commodity exports to the FCORs (from CARIFORUM) and to CARIFORUM (from the FCORs); Opportunities in terms of goods and services that should be targeted for trade between CARIFORUM and the FCORs and Barriers to trade.
This survey profiles the EU market for “Gifts and decorative articles” (2008). The emphasis of this survey lies on those products which are of importance to suppliers based in developing countries. The product groups discussed in this survey include: Candles, Woodware, Wickerwork, Artificial flowers & fruits, Ceramics, Glassware, Metalware, Plasticware and Paperware.
The Strategy aims to achieve this by establishing export promotion as a key instrument of Belize’s competitiveness and international relations, but within the context of the country’s medium to long term strategic national development objectives and imperatives. This will allow for two things: (i) attraction of investments into dynamic high growth potential niche markets while building capacity in the sectors with export performance development potential; and (ii) Belize will be able to aggressively pursue development of export markets for its niches products and services and to better identify its key strategic partner countries in development and trade by leveraging trade and export promotion as instruments of national development, environmental sustainability, and pro-poor growth. This should lead to real poverty reduction, and Belize would, as a consequence of all of the above, be better positioned to achieve its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) objectives and obligations.
During the 1980s and 1990s, financial sectors were the Achilles’ heel of economic development in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Since then, these sectors have grown and deepened, becoming more integrated and competitive, with new actors, markets, and instruments springing up and financial inclusion broadening. To crown these achievements, the region’s financial systems were left largely unscathed by the global financial crisis of 2008–09. Now that the successes of LAC’s macrofinancial stability are widely recognized and tested, it is high time for an in-depth stocktaking of what remains to be done. Financial Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Road Ahead provides both a stocktaking and a forward-looking assessment of the region’s financial development. Rather than going into detail about sector-specific issues, the report focuses on the main architectural issues, overall perspectives, and interconnections. The report’s value added thus hinges on its holistic view of the development process, its broad coverage of the financial services industry beyond banking, its emphasis on benchmarking, its systemic perspective, and its explicit effort to incorporate the lessons from the recent global financial crisis. Financial Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Road Ahead builds on and complements several overview studies on financial development in both LAC countries and the developing world that were published in the past decade. It will be of interest to policy makers and financial analysts interested in improving the financial sector in the LAC region.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Colombia. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Colombia.
This market brief provides information on the opportunities available for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) in engineering services.
This market brief provides information on the opportunities available for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) in fashion.
This market brief provides information on the opportunities available for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) in furniture.
This market brief provides information on the opportunities available for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) in handicrafts.
This market brief provides information on the opportunities available for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) in health and wellness services.
This market brief provides information on the opportunities available for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) in management consulting services.
This market brief provides information on the opportunities available for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) in processed foods.
This paper tries to fill this lacunae by providing a selective, although fairly comprehensive, discussion of some of the main developmental issues posed by the FTAA and FTAs. This is an issues paper. Its main objective is to raise relevant questions and review different academic and expert positions as well as existing empirical research results surrounding them. In light of the complexity of the subject matter, it would be over-ambitious to provide definite answers to these issues. Thus the spirit of this paper is more analytical and positive than normative or prescriptive.
The paper considers the developmental benefits and issues posed by the FTAA and FTAs in general, for LAC countries grouping them under six issue areas: (i) market access issues in industrial goods and agriculture; (ii) market access and rules issues in services and investment; (iii) other rules related issues in areas such as intellectual property, subsidies and industrial policy; (iv) the question of treatment of differences in size and levels of development, (v) technical assistance and capacity building issues, and finally, (vi) governance issues and the relationship between open markets and political institutions. In terms of trade rules in a number of areas, World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements provide – if not the floor – at least a very important reference point for the FTAA. Given this fact, this paper makes frequent reference to WTO rules and their developmental implications.
The objective of this paper is threefold: to review the demand, and the case, for regional public goods in the light of growing integration; to report on the response of certain international organizations and the system of official development assistance to perceived growth in the demand of these goods; and to analyze the challenges of financing regional public goods.
The purpose of this document is to describe, analyze and assess export promotion policies in the case of CARICOM Caribbean economies. The document is divided into six sections. Following the introduction, the first section provides the context for export promotion policies by analyzing how size and geography can shape export promotion efforts and their outcome. The second section focuses on CARICOM Caribbean economies’ export promotion objectives. The argument in this section is that smaller economies pursue three types of export promotion objectives. These are to secure markets, to maximize foreign exchange earnings, and to promote product recognition. Securing markets, which is analyzed at the national and regional levels, involves niche-market production for non- traditional products and preferential market access for traditional products. The exception to the rule is Guyana that has managed to create an ethnic niche-market for its agricultural products. The section also argues that smaller economies do not pursue, with a few exceptions, export diversification.
The third section examines the institutional setting and instruments for export promotion policies. For historical reasons and also due to the constraints imposed by small size, the government rather than the private sector is the major export promotion agent. The instruments for export promotion include the Common External Tariff, fiscal incentives, government capital expenditure, export financing schemes and trade diplomacy. The fourth section analyses the implications and impact of export promotion policies. It sustains that CARICOM Caribbean economies have lost market share in the goods market for their major extra-regional markets and gained market share at the intraregional level. In the services sector and in particular in tourism, CARICOM Caribbean states have also lost market share to the lower costs producers such as the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Mexico.
The PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the challenges in the implementation of services and investment in the EPA.
The paper focuses on electronic commerce and the opportunities and challenges it creates for the CARICOM region. Section I presents an overview of e-commerce and explores the relevance of this medium for the Caribbean. Section II examines e-commerce in the context of CARICOM countries and national policy initiatives in this area. Section III discusses the pre-requisites for successful e-commerce and assesses the factors affecting it in the Region. Section IV examines trade policy and negotiation issues relating to e-commerce in the multilateral and hemispheric contexts; and Section V provides recommendations for a CARICOM position.
The report contains five chapters. After the introduction, the second chapter examines the external trade policy of the region. It identifies priorities and policy options among the different set of negotiations, taking the issue of sequencing into account. In addition, it analyses the institutional framework for the negotations. Capacity building is an important issue in this context. Chapter 3 deals with the role of the CSME in the context of the external trade negotiations and the repositioning process. It addresses the progress in implementing liberalisation of the movement of goods, services, labour and capital and assesses progress on macroeconomic convergence. Finally, opportunities provided by the trade and co-operation agreements with other countries in the region are examined, notably with Haiti, The Dominican Republic, Cuba, Venezuela, Colombia, the OCTs and DOMS and with Latin America. Chapter 4 examines the impact of liberalisation and resulting restructuring and policy options, referred to as the process of strategic global repositioning. It analyses which sectors are likely to loose and which sectors may gain from liberalisation. In addition, it identifies the options for policy makers for stimulating a supply response. These policy options cover infrastructure, improving access to finance and stimulating knowledge driven sectors, but also private sector support through the promotion of co-operation and clustering between businesses, and through providing business support services. The final chapter concludes and provides recommendations for strategy and policy and identifies the areas that need to be strengthened.
The study commissioned by Caribbean Export, aims at developing a strategy for the development of the Caribbean management consulting industry. According to the study, the market for management consulting services is two-tiered, with a top level that dominates in value and a low level that dominates in client numbers. 63.4% of clients spend under US$100,000 annually on consulting assignments, accounting for just 10.1% of the market, while 12.9% of clients spend over US$500,000 each year, accounting for about 62.3% of the market.
Strengthening the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of the British and Dutch Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) in the Caribbean region presented by the EU Delegation to Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean at the 6th Meeting of the CARIFIRUM/FCOR/OCT Task Force on Trade and Investment, Martinique, October 27, 2010.
Trinidad and Tobago Coalition of Services Industries (TTCSI) Presentation on the Trade mission to Guadeloupe and Martinique at the 6th Meeting of the CARIFORUM/FCOR/OCT Task Force on Trade and Investment, Martinique, October 27, 2010.
Jamaica's strategy for increasing services exports to the FCORs/OCTs - presented at the 6th Meeting of the CARIFORUM/FCOR/OCT Task Force on Trade and Investment, Martinique, October, 2010
Doing Business between CARIFORUM and Curacao presented at the 6th Meeting of the CARIFORUM/FCOR/OCT Task Force on Trade and Investment, Martinique, October 27, 2010
Presented by the Chair of the CARIFORUM/FCOR/OCT Task Force on Interconnectivity at the 6th Meeting of the CARIFORUM/FCOR/OCT Task Force on Trade and Investment, Martinique, Ictober 27, 2010
Consultancy on opportunities for doing business between CARIFORUM States and the French Outermost Regions (FCORs) presented at the Task Force Meeting, October, 2010 by Noel Watson and Lucia Angelo.
This study deals with institutional and legal framework of the CSME; intra-regional market access; CARICOM's sectoral development policies; the macroeconomic framework; prioritisation action plan and the role of donors. Please visit http://www.oecs.org/oecs-library/e-union/caricom-single-market-and-economy-assessment-of-the-region-s-support-needs-june-24-2003opt3-pdf for an e-copy of the publication.
This report suggests areas where Governments can provide an appropriate framework for the private sector to develop. It also recognises that not all CARIFORUM countries will be able to sustain an export fishing industry and as such not all recommendations will be applicable to all CARIFORUM countries. The report also suggests that regional organisations such as CARIFORUM can make a substantial contribution to building the sustainability of the fishing industries of CARIFORUM countries through agencies such as the proposed CAHFSA agency. As such, this report is directed toward CARIFORUM Governments, CARIFORUM donor agencies and the private sector.
Crowdfunding’s Potential in the Caribbean: A Preliminary Assessment, was commissioned by infoDev, a global technology and innovation program at the World Bank Group. This is the second in a series of studies published by infoDev on the topic, the first being Crowdfunding’s Potential for the Developing World (infoDev 2013). Since it is the first study to focus on developing crowdfunding in the Caribbean, it provides a preliminary assessment with the objective of disseminating information that can be utilized by the many different actors in the Caribbean entrepreneurial ecosystem. The intended audience for this introductory paper includes key Caribbean stakeholders concerned with access to finance, specifically: the private sector, the business enabler community, governments and regulatory bodies, and international financial institutions.
This report’s scope is a preliminary assessment of the potential viability of crowdfunding in the Caribbean, which serves as an initial step for further research. It examines three essential elements, which are the building blocks of a well-functioning crowdfunding ecosystem:
For this assessment, the methodology was to conduct extensive in-person interviews with over 70 stakeholders from the public and private sector in Saint Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, and Jamaica. These countries were selected to provide input from nations with varying populations, geographic locations (including The Organization of Eastern Caribbean States) and economic development. The findings from the survey revealed that, so far, there have been only experimental levels of crowdfunding in the Caribbean. This experimentation has occurred primarily on U.S.-based crowdfunding platforms (for example, Kickstarter, Indiegogo, and GoFundMe). The growing utilization of the Internet and social media facilitated by existing networks for remittance capital flows has resulted in the emergence of a handful of nascent Caribbean platforms. However, the Caribbean culture of being risk adverse and low in trust for online financial systems coupled with the low awareness of crowdfunding in the region are barriers to widespread adoption.
This document outlines the international context for our agenda to strengthen aid effectiveness and the principles that will guide our efforts. These include providing increased attention to the leadership role of developing countries, promoting greater coordination with other donors, and fostering greater coherence in Canada’s policies that affect our developing-country partners. In keeping with the principles, this document identifies the framework within which decisions will be made on the geographical and sectoral allocation of CIDA’s resources. It also identifies changes in tied aid policies designed to reinforce aid effectiveness and the steps we are taking to strengthen CIDA as an institution.
The outlook for 2014 is slow growth in most of the individual economies. IMF projections show eight countries growing faster in 2014 than in 2013 but no faster than 2.7 per cent. In the countries projected to grow less rapidly in 2014, namely Guyana, Haiti and Suriname, the growth rate is expected to be in the region of four per cent. Inflation rates are projected to increase in ten of the 14 countries, with inflation abating in only Barbados, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. The external balance is expected to improve in eight countries and to deteriorate in five others. Government finances are projected to remain problematic with the primary balance expected to deteriorate in five countries and with the gross debt ratio increasing in 12 countries, including countries which are already highly indebted.
Reviews and discuss the various modalities in which trade information can be distributed to target end-users. Includes examples illustrating the various option at hand. Hard copy document only.
Includes profiles of 152 sources of information that can be used to locate importers. Hard copy document only.
The workshop was the culmination of country studies that were carried out under an Italian Government-funded project to assess the policies, institutions and instruments for dynamic Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) development competitiveness in Jamaica, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. The aim was to use the lessons learned from the three countries to inform policy and practice in the other member countries of the Caribbean Development and Cooperation Committee (CDCC).
This document represents the first step in the process to develop an Agency Strategic Plan. This document is a position paper, a snapshot of the Agency’s priorities and direction. It seeks to inform stakeholders – member states, CARICOM Secretariat, CARIFORUM Directorate, OECS Secretariat, our exporter and investor clients, national promotional and business support organisations, international and regional development partners and the general public – about the work of Caribbean Export and our current priorities and directions.
Please see WTO website http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp_rep_e.htm#bycountry.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Trinidad and Tobago. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Trinidad and Tobago.
This report offers a detailed assessment of recent progress achieved in the three main areas of the integration process: economic integration, foreign policy coordination and functional cooperation. It also analyses the determinants of integration - what drives it, what slows it down - in an effort to generate a better understanding of the challenges and prospects of the Caribbean integration process.
The Caribbean’s location at the crossroads of global container shipping routes gives the region excellent maritime connectivity that could translate into significant commercial opportunities. Given its heavy dependence on trade, Caribbean authorities are increasingly vested in improving the efficiency of supply chains and addressing issues related to maritime transport and logistics. In the context of the Panama Canal expansion, it is of the utmost important that steps be taken immediately to strengthen the Caribbean’s position in global maritime trade routes. The Caribbean Regional Action Plan on Freight Logistics, Maritime Transport and Trade Facilitation reviews the status of trade and transport infrastructure in the Caribbean Basin, with particular emphasis on CARIFORUM countries. The study highlights the main trends in global and regional trade flows in the region, estimates the impact of these trends on the shipping industry and selected Caribbean Basin ports, and proposes a regional Action Plan for taking advantage of new commercial opportunities.
The Private Sector Assessment Report (PSAR) provides a comprehensive overview of the private sector in St. Lucia. It draws on both primary and secondary data sources. Primary data analyses were derived from interviews with key stakeholders from the domestic private and public sectors as well as interviews with regional and international agencies. A listing of the main stakeholders in each country is documented in the original country reports1. Secondary data wereutilized to describe the state of the country at both the micro and macro levels. In addition to these specific elements of the research, the development of the PSAR was assisted by consultations organized under the Caribbean Growth Forum2 (CGF) banner.
ThePSAR analyses the characteristics and primary components of the private sector, key challenges to private-sector development, emerging sectors, and finally presents an action plan for the promotionof private-sector development. The PSAR suggests that the government should focus on improvement and utilization of technology and on strengthening the labour force.
This hand-book is designed to put the right information into the hands of our tourism industry to make sure we take full advantage of the EPA. Written in as straightforward and accessible a style as possible, this hand-book summarises the provisions in the Agreement which will affect tourism. It provides a country-by country breakdown of the Caribbean’s EPA commitments to reduce tariffs on European goods and to allow European firms to provide services in our region, and it gives a full analysis of the development funding which is available and how to access it. If as a result of exploring this handbook you have specific or detailed enquiries about the EPA, CHTA is additionally able to provide through specialists a practical advice service by telephone or email. More detailed information about this service and full access to an on-line version of the report are available from our website www.caribbeanhotelassociation.com.
The first step is to talk. Essentially, the WTO is a place where member governments go, to try to sort out the trade problems they face with each other. At its heart are WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations. But the WTO is not just about liberalizing trade, and in some circumstances its rules support maintaining trade barriers — for example to protect consumers, prevent the spread of disease or protect the environment. For further information visit www.wto.org.
Odyssey in International Markets is the second report of the Integration and Trade Sector of the Inter-American Development Bank aimed at helping countries in Latin America and the Caribbean identify obstacles that stand in the way of more effective integration into the world economy and design policies to reduce these impediments to trade. The report first makes a comprehensive analysis of export promotion organizations in some three dozen countries and regions. Second, it provides robust evaluations, using state-of-the-art econometrics and original datasets, of the impacts that policies have had on export outcomes of countries and firms. The report is supported by rigorous background studies that are available as IDB Working Papers through the Bank´s website. Based on the findings of this report, it appears that export promotion seems to have been effective in facilitating export expansion, especially along the extensive margin (i.e., diversification). At the same time, the report points to areas where further research would produce deeper insights into its relative merits.
The objective of this report is to set out the opportunities that arise from this Agreement; to provide trade data; and outline the regulatory framework for providing selected professional services in 8 Member States of the EU and to assist the CARIFORUM countries and the relevant professional associations within them in making the necessary adjustments and informing negotiations so as to maximize the benefits envisaged by the EPA.
The paper addresses the issue on the interaction between monetary and macroprudential policies in small open economies for different exchange rate regimes. The need for macroprudential policy arises from exacerbated macroeconomic fluctuations due to frictions in the financial system as in Bernanke, Gertler and Gilchrist (1999). Understanding these dynamics in developing nations has been even more important after the most recent events of the Great Recession. Policy makers within the scrutinized economies will see the exact magnitude of shocks caused by changes in financial frictions, monetary and macroprudential policy. Exchange rate considerations are also brought to the fore, by assessing the effects of these policies on two emerging economies from the Caribbean with differing monetary policy frameworks. Despite differences between flexible and fear of floating exchange rate regimes, macroprudential policies implementation help mitigate the effects of credit supply shocks affecting regional economies.
This study uses simulations of state-dependent distributions of fiscal limits for 18 economies in Central America and the Caribbean to better understand governments’ ability to service their debt, arising from endogenously determined dynamic Laffer curves. Using a small, open economy model to simulate macroeconomic fundamentals and fiscal policy interactions, the empirical findings produced results not previous available for these economies, showing varying and wider distributions of fiscal limits for the open economy model subject to terms-of-trade and flexible exchange rate shocks. This indicates that terms-of-trade and exchange rate volatility impacted the ability of national economies to service their debt. It is therefore prudent that policymakers and central bankers consider models that incorporate the use of trade and exchange rate volatility as a robust way of more accurately determining fiscal limits, which are a critical component in understanding governments’ ability to service their debt.
This booklet discusses the text of the TBT Agreement as it appears in the Final Act of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. This agreement and others contained in the Final Act, along with the amended General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT 1994), are part of the treaty which established the WTO. The WTO superseded the GATT as the umbrella organization for international trade.
The WTO Secretariat has prepared this booklet to assist public understanding of the TBT Agreement. The booklet first presents the basic structure of WTO agreements. It then provides a brief overview of the background, purpose and scope of the TBT Agreement, as well as the types of measures it covers. It sets out the key principles of the Agreement, and discusses how these have been addressed in recent disputes brought under the TBT Agreement. It next focuses on transparency, a cornerstone of the TBT Agreement. It also describes the mandate, role and work of the TBT Committee, and considers how TBT-related matters have arisen in the Doha Round negotiations. A separate section addresses a number of frequently asked questions about the Agreement. The booklet also contains the full text of the TBT Agreement, decisions and recommendations by the TBT Committee, a list of observers in the TBT Committee and an example of a typical TBT notification.
De-risking has the potential to develop into a threat to Barbados posing a challenge to the country's continued development and economic stability if left unchecked. Early indications are that the de-risking phenomenon may have already begun to erode Barbados’ competitive position as a leading IFC in the Caribbean region. Any sustained loss of IBC business for Barbados will undoubtedly lower government tax receipts, negatively impact employment, and could impact the level of FX availability in the domestic financial system.
This policy brief answers three main questions with respect to the no-user-fee policy adopted across public health centres in Jamaica: (i) Has the policy improved health status among working age adults? (ii) Has the policy influenced labour market dynamics? (iii) Has the policy had differential effects by age groups? Evidence suggests that the policy improved overall health status, as the likelihood of suffering illnesses associated with inability to carry out normal activities decreased by 28.6 percent. In addition, the number of days where people were unable to perform normal activities due to illnesses suffered within the previous four weeks decreased by 34 percent. Regarding labour market dynamics, no effects are found on the likelihood of being employed or contributing to the National Insurance Scheme. However, consistent with a reduced number of days lost due to illnesses, we find a positive effect of 2.15 additional weekly labour hours. Finally, we find that all of these positive effects are concentrated within adults in the 40– 64 year-old age range. Overall, these effects suggest that the policy added a yearly average of US$PPP 26.6 million worth of net real production to the Jamaican economy during the period 2008–12.
This directory provides a list of the membership of the Trinidad and Tobago Manufacturers' Association (TTMA).
This report was prepared on behalf of the International Trade Center. It draws on primary information from field interviews in Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Guyana during July-August 2015 and phone interviews with stakeholders in Belize, Suriname, St Lucia, St Vincent and Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago during September-November 2015. The aftermath of Tropical Storm Erika in Dominica in August 2015 did not permit primary research in the country. The coconut global value chain (GVC) is at a critical juncture, characterized by a rapidly growing demand in global markets and a stagnant supply base in danger of collapse in origin countries. Since the early 2000s, breakthroughs in processing technology and consumer awareness about the health benefits of coconut water have remarkably expanded markets beyond the tropics. Coconut value chains in the Caribbean region have mirrored the positive global market trends. Informed by the ‘multi-level perspective’, the report presents detailed analysis and recommendations for the Caribbean countries.
This study examines factors relating to the profile of firms, macroeconomic conditions, the business climate, and laments of businesspersons as possible constraints to performance. The findings reveal that an unfavorable macroeconomic environment and business climate affects all firms in the private sector. With respect to the former, the main issue relates to an overvalued exchange rate—a negative externality of being hydrocarbon-dependent. An unfavorable business climate reflects government policies, regulations, and public services that hinder rather than promote a dynamic, export-oriented and innovative private sector. Moreover, the profile of private sector firms—an important determinant of performance—is unfavourable in terms of age, size, legal form, and trade orientation. Estimates from this study suggests limited access to financing, and labour and crime constraints are the three main microeconomic factors that weigh negatively on the sales growth of firms.
This report documents SME participation in today’s fast-evolving trading system and contributes to a better understanding of the determinants and consequences of this participation, with the aim of adding to the debate on the role of SMEs in making growth more inclusive. This introductory section consists of three parts. First, it defines SMEs for the purpose of this report and discusses why they matter in their domestic economies. Second, it explains what this report is about, why it is timely and how it contributes to the debate on the role of SMEs. Finally it presents the structure of the report and highlights some important findings.
This study focuses on identifying the basic logistics capabilities in Belize, Central America and the Dominican Republic. It concentrates on the ports and sea network, taking into consideration intermodal networks involving both land and sea components together with the major performance drivers of intermodal networks including geography, infrastructure, regulations and trade requirements.
This text focuses on licensing as a means of exploiting intellectual property (IP). Before examining the licensing process it is important to consider the context in which licensing may occur. IP, as an asset to a business, may be exploited in many ways. A business may acquire IP for defensive purposes – using the IP to prevent copying of the businesses products or service or to assert in response to an IP challenge from another party. IP may also be used offensively – aggressively asserting it to frustrate competitors, obtain market share, control geographic markets, or generate revenue. Many businesses use their IP assets as leverage in negotiations for business deals, such as, for example, joint research and development arrangements, acquisitions or mergers, or strategic collaborations. Sophisticated businesses use IP for many different business purposes; basic licensing as discussed in this text is only one way to exploit IP.
The Global Value Chains Development Report is a joint publication of the World Bank Group, the Institute of Developing Economies (IDE–JETRO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Research Center of Global Value Chains (RCGVC-UIBE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), based on joint research efforts to better understand the ongoing development and evolution of global value chains and their implications for economic development. This first report draws contributions from 16 background papers presented and discussed at the conference “Making Global Value Chains Work for Economic Development and Shared Prosperity” in Beijing during March 17–18, 2016, organized by the RCGVC and the China Development Research Foundation. Drafts of the eight chapters of the report were presented and discussed at the second Authors’ Conference in Washington, DC, during November 28–29, 2016, organized by the World Bank.
This updated edition of WTO Dispute Settlement: One-Page Case Summaries has been prepared by the Legal Affairs Division of the WTO with assistance from the Rules Division and the Appellate Body Secretariat. This new edition covers all panel and Appellate Body reports adopted by the WTO Dispute Settlement Body as of 31 December 2016.
This publication summarizes on a single page the core facts and substantive findings contained in the adopted panel and, where applicable, Appellate Body reports for each decided case. Where relevant, the publication also summarizes key findings on significant procedural matters. The additional case summaries provided in this 2017 edition serve to further illustrate the active recourse of WTO members to resolve their disputes through the WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding. I’m sure it will continue to be seen as an essential reference for all students, practitioners and researchers of the WTO system.
This publication celebrates the ITA's twentieth anniversary,reviews the impact of the ITA and its expansion, and shares insights on the role of information technology for development, including its contribution to the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. As WTO members explore paths to advance the multilateral trading system in the years ahead, the ITA experience, as documented here, may provide some useful lessons.
the report focuses on the role of skills in explaining trade patterns and performance, as well as on their role in mediating the effects of trade on economic efficiency and distribution. The objective of the report is to consider how coherence between trade and skills development policies can be ensured by shedding light on the linkages between trade and skills, with a view to understanding when and how skills development policies can be used by governments to maximize the gains from trade and to ensure that these gains are shared broadly. The report combines findings from the economic literature – both theoretical and empirical work – and lessons from the ILO’s STED Programme. Economic theory provides a number of interesting insights regarding the effects of skills endowments on trade patterns and performance. It also helps us to understand the various channels through which trade affects the demand for skills; and it clearly spells out how changes in the demand for skills interact with the supply of skills in determining the impact of globalization on labour market outcomes. The empirical literature provides evidence on the various channels through which trade affects the demand for skills and shows that their importance varies with countries’ levels of economic development. More recent studies also focus on the role of particular skills in shaping the impact of globalization on individual workers.
This publication focuses on the close relationship between food standards and trade. It describes the system governing the development and implementation of food standards. It further highlights the importance of rules, the harmonization of regulations on the basis of international standards, and the need for countries to be prepared in order to take advantage of the system. The text offers insights for decision-makers in national governments and other stakeholders dealing with trade, standards, regulations and food policy. It explains that by bringing together trade, food safety and food standards, building awareness, domestic capacity and promoting collaboration, there can be tangible public health and economic benefits. Part I describes the system of Codex standards and WTO agreements. Part II examines the dynamics of the system in action and the importance of preparation and participation in Codex and the work of the SPS and TBT Committees by countries at all levels of development. The final section explores drivers of change likely to affect food standards and trade in the future.
This is the sixth edition of the Aid for Trade at a Glance publication. Since 2007, successive editions of this flagship publication have shed light on the steps being taken by developing country governments and their development partners to leverage trade for development. The 2017 edition adds further weight to the already substantial body of evidence highlighting the effectiveness of aid for trade. It focuses on how and why trade connectivity is critical for inclusiveness, sustainable growth and poverty reduction. It is intended to inform both practice and policy regarding aid for trade’s contribution to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The publication sheds light on various examples of how the private sector is helping MSMEs, women, and rural populations to connect to the global economy. The private sector is vital to bridging the digital divide and more should be done to solicit their views on policy choices and public investment, and promote public-private collaboration for boosting connectivity. Moving ahead, both developing countries and their development partners expect a scaling up of digital connectivity and e-commerce programmes. Findings show that the better the physical and digital connectivity, the more it contributes to market access, financial inclusion, women’s economic empowerment and poverty reduction. These impacts get amplified when the public and private sector work together to build the institutional and physical capacity to help the poor connect and compete.
The guide explaining the significance of the WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation and the reasons why it was proposed aims at helping business communities in developing countries understand the obligations that these countries have taken on or will do so in the future; gives an overview of the main provisions of the agreement; explains how it is intended to ease border controls for business, and how business can still influence the way that governments implement the obligations and specific commitments they have undertaken in reaching the Agreement; includes bibliographical references.
The world is complex. The World Trade Organization is complex. This booklet is brief, but it tries to reflect the complex and dynamic nature of trade and the WTO’s trade rules. It highlights benefits of the trading system, but it doesn’t claim that everything is perfect. Were it a perfect system, there would be no need for further negotiations and for the system to evolve and reform continually. Nor does this booklet claim that everyone agrees about everything in the WTO. That’s one of the most important reasons for having the system: it’s a forum for countries to thrash out their differences on trade issues. That said, there are a number of reasons why we’re better off with the system than without it.
Proceedings of 2014 Trade Promotion Organizations (TPO) Network World Conference and Awards held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, on 3 - 5 November 2014, addressing the theme ‘From export promotion to internationalization’, reflects the debates, discussions and key messages of the conference and showcases the winners of the 2014 TPO Network Awards; reviews the recent trend in the business support environment to merge trade and investment activities; discusses the benefits and opportunities for TPOs and their beneficiaries such as trade facilitation, diversifying exports towards emerging markets and integrating SMEs into value chains.
Developing linkages between TPOs is an important part of knowledge sharing and the development of expertise. This 2015 Directory of Trade Promotion Organizations provides an opportunity for this connection and is a tool to build a strong network of TPOs worldwide.
“World Trade Statistical Review” provides a detailed analysis of the latest developments in world trade. It will be produced on an annual basis and replaces “International Trade Statistics”, the WTO’s former annual statistical publication. All data used in this report, as well as additional charts and tables not included, can be downloaded from the WTO web site at www.wto.org/statistics.
This report examines the integration of North America’s agricultural and food markets as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), implemented in 1994. NAFTA has had a profound effect on many aspects of North American agriculture over the past two decades. With a few exceptions, intraregional agricultural trade is now completely free of tariff and quota restrictions, and the agricultural sectors of the member countries—Canada, Mexico, and the United States—have become far more integrated, as is evidenced by rising trade in a wider range of agricultural products, substantial levels of cross-border investment, and important changes in consumption and production. The report also examines recent disputes among its constituents and identifies opportunities for further reforms of mutual benefit to the member countries, with particular attention devoted to the NAFTA governments’ efforts to seek deeper regional integration through such means as regulatory cooperation and modifying the agreement’s rules of origin and broader access to markets in other parts of the world through the negotiation of additional free-trade agreements.
The 2014 Annual Report is split into three main sections. The first contains a message from the WTO Director-General. The second section provides a brief overview of 2013 and some background information on the WTO, while the third has more in-depth information.
This report endeavors to provide an analytical input into that debate. It explores the channels through which innovation promotes growth, and the ecosystems in which innovation flourishes. In so doing, the report pays special attention to the role of the intellectual property (IP) system, which at its heart seeks to support innovative activity. In addition to reviewing historical patterns of growth and conceptualizing the linkages between innovation and growth, the report’s main analytical contribution consists of six case studies of breakthrough innovations. In particular, it focuses on three historical innovations and three innovations which currently hold breakthrough potential (see table). Through case studies, one can take account of the different nature of innovative breakthroughs and the evolving context in which innovation takes place. In addition, even though many conclusions are specific to the six cases and may not be generalizable, the commonalities and differences presented by the cases offer food for thought on which policy approaches work best in alternative circumstances.
Presentation by Andrea Davis providing common issues, SWOT analysis and recommended strategiesfor the Jamaican music industry.
This report significantly improves upon official measurement of music’s economic contribution. It presents a robust definition of the core music industry, informed by a clear rationale. It identifies all forms of revenue that are captured within this definition and measures the GVA (Gross Value Added), export and employment directly contributed by these activities.
The objective of this report is to present the main findings of the survey for the market for Fresh fruit and vegetables. It details consumers’ satisfaction with various aspects of this market. The first level of analysis aims to describe consumers’ feelings about the market and about elements that constitute their retailer’s services as well as the problems encountered when purchasing its products. For each question asked in the questionnaire, a chart presents the results at EU and country level. When relevant, we also highlight the differences by distribution channel and socio-demographic profile of the respondent. The main indicator used in the analysis (which is widely admitted amongst the research experts’ community) is the percentage of satisfied and dissatisfied consumers, based on the scores given on a scale from 1 to 10. “Satisfied” are those who gave a satisfaction score of 8 to 10; “dissatisfied” are those who gave a score of 1 to 4. For the clarity of the analysis, we do not show the neutral consumers on the charts or those who could not give an answer to the question (“don’t know”). This is why the figures shown in most of the charts do not add up to 100%. If there are particularly large proportions of Don't know answers this is however mentioned in the text. The second level of analysis presented in this report shows the interaction of key satisfaction indicators so as to explain consumers’ overall satisfaction. For more information, the reader will find the full results of the survey as well as a methodological note, country reports and an overall report on DG SANCO web site:http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/strategy/cons_satisfaction_en.htm
This booklet provides answers to the many questions received on the Economic Partnership Agreements by Louis Mitchell since he took office as European Commissioner for Development policy and relations with the African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries.
This CBI market survey profiles the (organic) coffee, tea and cocoa market in the EU. The (organic) coffee, tea and cocoa market in individual EU countries is discussed in separate market surveys. These market surveys as well as EU export marketing guidelines for (organic) coffee, tea and cocoa can be downloaded from http://www.cbi.nl/marketinfo.
This survey profiles the EU market for precious jewellery and costume jewellery. The precious jewellery market includes jewellery pieces made of gold, platinum or silver all of which can be in plain form or with (semi-) precious gemstones, diamonds or pearls. The costume jewellery market includes imitation jewellery pieces of base metal plain or with semi-precious stones, glass, beads or crystals. It also includes imitation jewellery of any other material, cuff links and hair accessories. This survey excludes second-hand jewellery and luxury goods such as gold and silver smith’s ware (tableware, toilet ware, smokers’ requisites etc.) and watches.
The Nutmeg Sector Strategy has been developed to address the revitalization of this important Sector. The methodology for developing the Strategy has been participatory, using the Value Chain Approach with inputs from over 70 sector stakeholders drawn from the private and public sectors. This partnership is a part of the E.U. funded All ACP Agriculture Commodities Programme (AAACP) with the leadership from the Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Forestry and Fisheries and the International Trade Centre (I.T.C.). Grenada is the second largest world producer of nutmegs and mace after Indonesia, and is known for high quality nutmegs and as the only producer of the world’s No.1 mace. Traditionally, nutmeg and mace have been exported mainly to Europe to be used primarily in meat preservation and sausage making. In addition to its values in the culinary field, there is now strong evidence to support its usage in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. Though recognised for its superior product, Grenada lags behind in market research and development and its potential is limited because of the lack of an appropriate Market Information System (M.I.S.) to facilitate the gathering, processing and storage of domestic and international trade data so vital for informed decision-making. This Strategy is designed to provide opportunities and potential for the Sector – its stakeholders and beneficiaries. It is anticipated that its implementation would generally enhance Grenada’s economic development and would specifically contribute in a meaningful way to the rejuvenation of the rural economy.
This EU market survey profiles the EU market for fresh fruit and vegetables and consists of two parts. Part A provides market information for he major national markets within the EU and providing statistical market information on consumption, production and trade, and information on trade structure. The selected markets are: The Netherlands, Germany, France, the UK, Italy, Spain and Belgium. Part A also covers the requirements of the EU market in terms of product quality, packaging, labelling and social, health & safety and environmental standards. After having read Part A, it is important for an exporter to analyse the target markets, sales channels and potential customers in order to formulate marketing and product strategies. Part B subsequently aims to assist (potential) exporters in developing countries in their export-decision-making process. Exporters are advised to consult CBI’s Export Planner, a guide that shows how to set up export activities systematically, before using the marketing guidelines in this publication.
Cultivation of cocoa is a delicate process, as the trees are susceptible to changing weather patterns, diseases, and insects. Unlike larger, industrialized agribusinesses, the vast majority of cocoa comes from small, family-run farms, which often rely on outdated farming practices and have limited organizational leverage. Steadily increasing demand from worldwide consumers encourages a number of global efforts and funds committed to support and improve cocoa farm sustainability. This cocoa market updated looks at production, consumption, value chain and price of cocoa.
The report "Profiling Caribbean Women Entrepreneurs: Business Environment, Sectoral Constraints and Programming Lessons" is available at http://www.infodev.org/EPIC. This report seeks to redress the current paucity of information on growth-oriented women entrepreneurs in the Caribbean region by drawing on various data sources to estimate their numbers and sectoral focus. At the same time, it develops an understanding of the main issues facing women in their businesses and their future growth potential.
Three main concepts are used throughout the report: entrepreneurship, innovation, and growth-orientation. Entrepreneurship is used in its widest sense in relation to the support environment and the process of starting and running businesses. Innovation is considered the launching of new or improved products, services, processes, or business models to drive differentiation and/or efficiency for enhanced competitiveness. Growth orientation relates to individual drive, ambition, and potential to grow a business, while growth potential relates to the potential of the sector to grow.