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CBI Competition: Cacao
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

Cacao production is concentrated in West Africa. A few big multinational companies dominate trade. Volatile market prices, diverse EU consumer demands and increasing sustainability and health requirements characterise the market. At  the same time, new production regions are emerging (Vietnam and India) and processing capacity is moving to producing countries (Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana) where local consumption is rising. This brings new dynamics to the competitive environment of cacao trade. Scarcity and a more differentiated/segmented demand from traditional and new consumers are two key drivers that open up opportunities for exporters.




Published - February 2015
EU buyer requirements for coffee, tea and cocoa
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE, EU, TEA, COFFEE, FOOD SAFETY, CERTIFICATION

Buyer requirements for coffee, tea and cocoa (CTC) can be divided into (1) musts, requirements you must meet in order to enter the market, such as legal requirements, (2) common requirements, which are those most of your competitors have already implemented, in other words, the ones you need to comply with in order to keep up with the market, and (3) niche market requirements for specific segments. This paper looks at sustainable certification, food safety certification, corporate social responsibility, extraction solvents, food contamination and food safety and control.




Published - [2015]
The cocoa market situation
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

This document provides an overview of the cocoa market situation from the beginning of the current 2013/2014 season to June 2014. It covers short-term price developments in the cocoa market as well as the most recently available  statistics on cocoa bean production, grindings and stocks.  The document updates the preceding review (document EC/3/2 dated 16 January 2014) which covered market developments that took place within the world cocoa economy in the 2012/2013 cocoa year, as well as projections for supply, demand and prices made by the Secretariat for the current 2013/2014 season through to 2018/2019. It also reviewed movements of cocoa futures prices on both the London and New York markets for 2012/2013, as well as for the October to December 2013 period of the current crop year.




Published - July 24, 2014
CBI trends: cacao
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

The cacao sector is currently confronted with various opportunities and threats. The market is increasingly demanding healthy products, which translates into a rising demand for dark chocolates and chocolates with a sustainability label. At the same time, buyers are becoming more interested in the actual impact of certification and expect additional efforts with respect to issues such as biodiversity conservation and climate adaptation. However, the sector is confronted with rising concerns about future supplies: children of the current farmers no longer believe in a good future in cacao and would rather go to school in the hope of finding employment outside the sector. Other issues being faced by the sector are related poverty, child and forced labour and stricter EU legislation regarding cadmium. So, with this in mind, how can you tap into the opportunities within the EU market business environment? Find out with this document on current and future trends in the cacao sector.




Published - February 2015
CBI field of competition: spices and herbs
SPICES, HERBS, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

The power of buyers in the EU has traditionally been strong but with increasing scarcity and high prices power is slowly being transferred to suppliers in origin. The good market conditions will attract new entrants in the coming years. Although this will change the competitive environment, the fact that global consumption is growing faster than production provides good opportunities for all suppliers that are able to meet the high quality and food safety buyer requirements. Opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries are found particularly at the high end of the market.




Published - [2015]
CBI buyers' black box: herbs and spices
SPICES, HERBS, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

The CBI Buyers' Black Box offers exporters and Business Support Organisations (BSOs) in developing countries (DCs) a clear and up-to-date view of what goes on in the minds of European buyers when they are sourcing from suppliers from  DCs.  This Buyers' Black Box offers sector-specific analysisi and interpretation of teh expectations buyers have of exporters in the herbs and spices sector, against the backdrop of general market trends.  The purpose is to give DC exporters an understanding of how European buyers in their sector think, act and what they focus on, as well as highlighting opportunities and considerations for action.




Published - [2015]
CBI market channels and segments: spices and herbs
SPICES, HERBS, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

Market channels are changing rapidly as a result of developments in the sector. The increased power and development of suppliers, scarcity and the growing popularity of sustainability are the most important drivers of change. This is accompanied by more direct sourcing, cooperation and integration in the trade channel. Small and medium-sized companies (SMEs) in developing countries (DCs) should anticipate these changing market dynamics. There are opportunities for developing your business but players that do not add value can find themselves being cut out of the supply chain.




Published - [2015]
CBI Product Factsheet: cacao in Switzerland
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, SWITZERLAND

Although the global market for chocolate confectionary is still dominated by Western Europe and North America, emerging markets clearly represent the future. The BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) accounted for 55% of global confectionery retail growth in 2011 (KPMG, 2012). Other emerging economies with young populations and an acquisitive middle class are likely to develop a taste for chocolate and, as their disposable incomes grow, will represent important target markets for Switzerland with its large and influential chocolate industry.  This paper looks at buyer and market requirements, food safety and control and provides trade statistics.




Published - March 2015
CBI product factsheet: cocoa and cocoa preparations in Finland
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, FINLAND

Finland has a chocolate consumption level that is well above average: 5.5 kg per person per year. The market for raw materials such as cocoa beans, butter, powder and fat is not large. More often, the chocolate products are sourced from other EU member states such as the Netherlands and Germany. Providing cocoa products to the Finnish consumer is only feasible for suppliers of high quality products who adhere to strict food safety requirements. This factsheet will provide you with the most important specifications of the Finnish market for cocoa products by looking at the four P’s of the marketing mix: product, price, promotion and place.




Published - [2015]
Making intellectual property work for business: a handbook for chambers of commerce and business associations setting up intellectual property services
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, TRADE MARKS, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, SMEs,

Building on their respective work, ICC and WIPO have developed this handbook to help business associations and chambers of commerce establish business support services relating to IP. This handbook is not intended to be a legal guide to explain the nuts and bolts of IPRs, as many excellent legal guides already exist. This handbook endeavours to be a concise and practical guide to help business membership organizations set up their own IP services, illustrated with useful examples and good practices from around the world. It has benefited from the contributions of ICC National Committees, business associations and chambers of commerce worldwide, and therefore reflects real-life practice and experience.




Published - 2011
Negotiating preferential market access: the case of NAFTA
TRADE AGREEMENTS, NAFTA, USA, CANADA, MEXICO

There is a growing interest related to the theoretical analysis of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). Nevertheless, there has been as yet very little empirical research on the topic, in particular, on the negotiating dynamics of these types of agreements. This paper attempts to make a contribution in this direction examining the relationship between the two most important market access instruments in the case of NAFTA negotiations: the preferential tariff phase-outs and the accompanying rules of origin (RoO). The traditional literature has viewed market access negotiations solely in terms of tariff (and non-tariff) negotiations. From an analytical point of view, the role of RoO, that is the rules that are designed to determine the origin of products in international trade, has usually been restricted to a “secondary” or “supportive” function. As such, RoO were seen to assist in the application or implementation of other “primary” instruments. In the case of preferential RoO, they help to determine when a particular good will be granted preferential tariff treatment. Using a newly constructed data set this paper estimates a simultaneous equation model where the endogenous variables are the preferential tariff phase-outs between Mexico and the United States and the RoO under the NAFTA agreement. The empirical findings of this paper support the view that in accordance with recent literature, the NAFTA RoO were used as an independent commercial policy instrument with a “primary” market access function as it is the case with the traditional preferential tariffs.




Published - June 1999
Caribbean Export Annual Report 2009-2010: Expanding Caribbean Business in the Global Marketplace
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

The Caribbean Export Development Agency’s (Caribbean Export) undertook activities in 2009-2010 in line with its mandate to provide strategic guidance to the CARIFORUM region in enhancing competitiveness, promoting trade and export development, improving regional trade and investment relations, and enhancing linkages between CARICOM and the Dominican Republic. Caribbean Export also lead the way in demonstrating self-sustainability and strengthening the brand as the region’s only export development agency.




Published - 2011
Caribbean Export Outlook 2014-2015
MARKETING RESEARCH, CARIFORUM, EXPORT POTENTIAL, CARICOM, AGRO-PROCESSING, SERVICES, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, MUSIC, EPA, EU, BEVERAGES, BRAZIL, GUYANA, TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO, JAMAICA, OECS, TRADE, INVESTMENT, TOURISM

Caribbean Export Outlook is intended to provide this necessary level of information to facilitate the navigation of international trade by our regional exporters, whilst providing potential investors with an insight into the Caribbean business landscape. The Caribbean Export Development Agency hope that this publication will raise awareness of key issues affecting the private sector; provide information for planning firm-level and national-level export strategies; engage stakeholders, whether policy makers or trade promotion organisations, to improve the export environment for firms; and contribute to the discussion on the way forward for regional export development and promotion. This publication will also highlight to the world that we in the Caribbean produce quality goods and services that epitomize the essence of who we are as a people-passionate, diverse and exquisite.




Published - 2015
Caribbean Export Outlook 2016-2017
MARKETING RESEARCH, CARIFORUM, EXPORT POTENTIAL, CARICOM, AGRO-PROCESSING, SERVICES, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, MUSIC, EPA, EU, BEVERAGES, BRAZIL, AFRICA, GERMANY, BRAZIL, CUBA, CHINA, TRADE, INVESTMENT, TOURISM

This publication, now in its second edition, not only highlights the tremendous potential that the Caribbean has in terms of international trade, but also the breadth of opportunities available for international investors looking to capitalise on what is arguably one of the best locations in the world. In the first edition, we highlighted key markets for exporters, including select countries in West Africa, Germany and Brazil, while in this edition our attention focuses on the burgeoning interest in Cuba and China as potential markets.




Published - 2017
The Caribbean Export and GIZ Cooperation: Cooperating to Export
AFRICA, CARIBBEAN, TRADE, COTONOU, EPA, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, SERVICES, EXPORT DEVELOPMENT

The Caribbean Export Development Agency (Caribbean Export) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH have worked together for over 5 years. This collaborative partnership has developed from one of merely financial support to a strong, mutually beneficial relationship where the two agencies work cohesively on regional trade and export development. This project enables the CARIFORUM private sector to be more competitive in penetrating regional and international markets, with a particular focus on the utilisation of the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA). Caribbean Export has recently signed a second agreement/MOU with GIZ that formalises the relationship and enables further collaboration. GIZ brings a particularly valuable expertise to this initiative. Their practices draw on a wealth of regional and technical expertise as well as tried and tested management know-how. Their services span many fields: economic development and employment promotion; governance and democracy; security, reconstruction, peace building and civil conflict transformation; food security, health and basic education; environmental protection, resource conservation and climate change mitigation. This publication highlights some of the successful projects that Caribbean Export and GIZ have worked on together over the past 5 years.




Published - 2015
The Development and Implementation of National Investment Promotion Strategies: A step by step guide
INVESTMENT, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT, CARICOM

This publication is the first in a series of advisory documents on investment promotion that is being published by Caribbean Export. The document serves as a practical guide on how to develop and implement national investment promotion strategies and is intended to benefit practitioners in investment promotion agencies in the Caribbean.  Caribbean Export’s Investment Promotion Advisory Series seeks to focus attention on the issues related to investment promotion and facilitation, including but not limited to image building, marketing and promotions, research and policy advocacy and the business climate.




Published - 2015
Caribbean Export and EPA implementation in the Caribbean services sector (2011-2014)
SERVICES, TRADE IN SERVICES, CARIBBEAN, EPA,CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, SPECIALISED TORUISM, PROFESSIONAL SERVICES

As the regional agency, leading the implementation the 10th European Development Fund (EDF) Regional Private Sector Programme (RPSDP), from March 2011 - December 2015 across CARIFORUM, the Caribbean Export Development Agency (Caribbean Export) undertook a range of programme-based activities, which has implications for the application of the EPA regionally, given the 10th EDF’s overall objective of contributing to the gradual integration of CARIFORUM countries into the world economy. This handbook provides a summary of activities undertaken by Caribbean Export specifically development work in the services sector, under the component of the Agency’s 10th EDF work programme, which speaks to identifying and strengthening the region’s high potential niche sectors to benefit from EPA provisions. The creative industries, professional services, and specialised tourism are highlighted as target sectors in this arrangement, and have been recipients of programming aimed at providing increased access to finance, delivering training and certification, strengthening regional networks, and facilitating the participation of firms in regional and international missions.




Published - 2015
Assessment of Framework and Opportunities for Enhancing Export Trade between Guyana, Suriname and Brazil
BRAZIL, GUYANA, SURINAME, BUSINESS PPORTUNITIES, TRADE, EXPORT, FOREIGN TRADE

This report details an immediate (i.e. within two years) set of actions that are geared at addressing the underwhelming performance of Guyana and Suriname based firms in the markets of the Troika (Guyana, Suriname and Brazil are jointly referred to as The Troika). The report details actions that may be feasible for the client to pursue, and others which are more clearly the responsibility of the Governments of Guyana and Suriname.




Published - March 2014
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analysis Report: Arts and Craft
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, ARTS AND CRAFT, HANDICRAFTS, CARIFORUM

This value chain’s analysis includes the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. On this basis, this report considers the value chains using a two‐fold approach: analysis of the supply (CARIFORUM) side, and analysis of the demand (EU) side. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); joint‐ventures and e‐commerce platforms ‐ both Business‐to‐Consumer (B2C) and Business‐to‐Business (B2B).




Published - July 08, 2015
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analyses Final Report
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CARIFORUM

The creative chain consists of an initial creative idea, which is usually combined with other inputs to produce a culture good or service, through a series of interlinked stages between their production and use. A culture product must be created, produced, possibly manufactured or reproduced, and then distributed before it reaches, or is used by, a consumer. This chain of activity includes a number of distinct steps, usually occurring in business establishments. However, in order to collect harmonised and, when possible, comparable data, a simple value chain as a framework of analysis (linear value chain) was used. Nevertheless, we consider the local ecosystem as a key factor influencing CCIs’ supply chain and their performance. The value chain’s analysis will therefore include the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); joint‐ventures and e‐commerce platforms ‐ both Business‐to‐Consumer (B2C) and Business‐to‐Business (B2B).




Published - August 31, 2015
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analysis Report: Painting (Visual Arts)
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CARIFORUM, VISUAL ARTS, PAINTINGS

The value chain’s analysis includes the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. On this basis, this report considers the value chains using a twofold approach: analysis of the supply (CARIFORUM) side, and analysis of the demand (EU) side. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); jointventures and ecommerce platforms both BusinesstoConsumer (B2C) and BusinesstoBusiness (B2B).




Published - July 8, 2015
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analysis Report: Jewellery
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CARIFORUM, JEWELLERY

The value chain’s analysis includes the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. On this basis, this report considers the value chains using a twofold approach: analysis of the supply (CARIFORUM) side, and analysis of the demand (EU) side. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); jointventures and ecommerce platforms both BusinesstoConsumer (B2C) and BusinesstoBusiness (B2B).




Published - July 26, 2015
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analysis Report: Music
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CARIFORUM, MUSIC

The value chain’s analysis includes the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. On this basis, this report considers the value chains using a twofold approach: analysis of the supply (CARIFORUM) side, and analysis of the demand (EU) side. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); jointventures and ecommerce platforms both BusinesstoConsumer (B2C) and BusinesstoBusiness (B2B).




Published - July 8, 2015
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analysis Report: Fashion
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CARIFORUM, FASHION

The value chain’s analysis includes the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. On this basis, this report considers the value chains using a twofold approach: analysis of the supply (CARIFORUM) side, and analysis of the demand (EU) side. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); jointventures and ecommerce platforms both BusinesstoConsumer (B2C) and BusinesstoBusiness (B2B).




Published - July 8, 2015
Creating Opportunities: 2013 Annual Report of The Caribbean Export Development Agency
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

The Caribbean Export Development Agency carries out numerous programme-based activities designed to enhance the competitiveness of regional small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), promote trade and development among the CARIFORUM, promote stronger trade and investment relations among CARIFORUM and the French Caribbean and Outermost Regions (FCORs) and the European Union (EU) Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) in the Caribbean, as well as promote stronger trade and investment cooperation between the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the Dominican Republic. The 2013 annual report provides a break down of the activities for the year.




Published - 2014
Laying the Foundation for Success: 2014 Annual Report of The Caribbean Export Development Agency
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

Caribbean Export’s work among regional SMEs is centred on six strategic areas: investment promotion, access to finance, export development, export promotion, business advocacy and sustainability. With each year of implementation, the Agency has seen increased participation in programme-based interventions from not only SMEs, but also from our partner agencies in private sector development, which are the business support organisations and public sector agencies across CARIFORUM. This annual report provides an overview of the activities undertaken in 2014.




Published - 2015
Building on Success: 2015 Annual Report of The Caribbean Export Development Agency
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

During the period January-December 2015, The Caribbean Export Development Agency centred its development results within six priority areas: investment promotion, access to finance, export development, export promotion, business advocacy and institutional sustainability, and with each year of EDF implementation, Caribbean Export has seen increased engagement, and positive results from participation in programme-based interventions from SMEs, BSOs, and the public sector.  This 2015 annual report provides a synopsis of the actvities undertaken.




Published - 2016
Caribbean Export Annual Report, 2008
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

The Caribbean Export Development Agency’s implementation strategy is to integrate the project activities into its work plan through the Contribution Agreement now signed between the European Commission (EC) and Caribbean Export.  This is a major step forward for the relationship between the EC and Caribbean Export, since it allows the Agency to use its own procedures and rules, which have been audited and approved by the EC.  The Annual Report 2008 continues to focus on the work undertaken and the results achieved within its four broad objectives, during the year. The body of the report is preceded by our Vision and Mission statements and is followed by a short section looking ahead to 2009.




Published - 2009
Vision into Action: 2012 Annual Report of The Caribbean Export Development Agency
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

In 2012 Caribbean Export Development Agency (Caribbean Export) took the decision to focus programme implementation around seven key zones, which reflect the Agency’s approach to regional development, namely investment  promotion, access to finance, research and market intelligence, trade agreements: advocacy and awareness, export promotion and development, fostering partnerships, and Caribbean Export’s capacity building. This Annual Report outlines the activities undertaken within each zone.




Published - 2013
Doing business with the Dominican Republic
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Dominican Republic. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Dominican Republic.




Published - December 2010
Doing business with Venezuela
VENEZUELA, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Venezuela. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Venezuela.




Published - August 2008
The state of food insecurity in the World: The multiple dimensions of food security
FAO.,FOOD.,

The 2013 report goes beyond measuring chronic food deprivation. It presents a broader suite of indicators that aims to capture the multidimensional nature of food insecurity, its determinants and outcomes. This suite, compiled for every country, allows a more nuanced picture of their food security status, guiding policy-makers in the design and implementation of targeted and effective policy measures that can contribute to the eradication of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition. Drawing on the suite of indicators, the report also examines the diverse experiences of six countries. These experiences show that other forms of malnutrition can sometimes be more significant than undernourishment. In such circumstances, policy interventions to improve food security need to include nutrition-sensitive interventions in agriculture and the food system as a whole, as well as in public health and education, especially of women. Nutrition-focused social protection may need to target the most vulnerable, including pregnant women, adolescent girls and children.

Policies aimed at enhancing agricultural productivity and increasing food availability, especially when smallholders are targeted, can achieve hunger reduction even where poverty is widespread. When they are combined with social protection and other measures that increase the incomes of poor families, they can have an even more positive effect and spur rural development, by creating vibrant markets and employment opportunities, resulting in equitable economic growth. Not surprisingly, the specific country experiences suggest that high poverty levels generally go hand in hand with high levels of undernourishment. But undernourishment can also be more severe than poverty, especially when both are at high levels. As food is one of the most incomeresponsive of all basic necessities, higher incomes can therefore expedite reductions in undernourishment.

 

 




Published - 2013
Exporting to Canada - A Handbook. Tenth Edition, 2013
CANADA, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES,I NTERNATIONAL TRADE, IMPORT REGULATIONS

This handbook provides an overview of the Canadian economy and market, current trends in Canadian imports and opportunities created by these trends. Contains information on importation of how to market products in Canada. Includes names and addresses of agencies and organisations of importance to potential exporters to Canada.




Published - 2013
External public debt of CARICOM Member States 1990-2000
CARICOM, STATISTICAL DATA

Provides data on external public debt at both the regional level and details at the level of Member States. Presents data highlights on the overall debt situation of CARICOM excluding Barbados and Suriname.




Published - June 2002
Strengthening aid effectiveness: new approaches to Canada's international assistance program
CANADA, DEVELOPMENT AID

The Aid Effectiveness paper explicitly re-confirms the overarching 1995 mandate for Canadian ODA. But it also strongly affirms the centrality of poverty reduction to development cooperation for CIDA and other donors. Many of the approaches suggested in the paper respond to the complexities of achieving this goal. At the same time, poverty reduction is a modest goal for CIDA, understating Canada’s public commitments at UN Conferences to work on a specific agenda for the eradication of poverty, such as the 1995 World Summit for Social Development or the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. The CIDA paper, however, also makes explicit an additional rationale for aid, that is “Canada’s enlightened self-interests” that may deflect Canadian aid from the poorest countries and people. CCIC members have witnessed growing poverty, inequality deteriorating human rights and democratic governance in many parts of the developing world during the past decade. World Bank structural adjustment policies, long supported by the donor community, have been engines of marginalization and increased poverty. A critique of these policies and the responsibilities of donors for “mistaken” strategies in the past receive little attention in the Aid Effectiveness paper. In CCIC’s view strategies for poverty eradication should define Canada’s “enlightened self-interests” in our relations with developing countries.




Published - June 2001
Application of the rules of origin
RULES OF ORIGIN, CARICOM

Application of the rules of origin presented by Norris Breeedy, CARICOM Secretariat, June, 2009




Published - June 2009
Doing business with the Cayman Islands
CAYMAN ISLANDS, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Cayman Islands. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Cayman Islands.




Published - June 2007
Natural resources in Latin America and the Caribbean: beyond booms and busts?
LATIN AMERICA, CARIBBEAN, NATURAL RESOURCES, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Policy makers in many countries in the Latin American and Caribbean region have found it challenging to determine how to treat natural resource commodity production and how to manage the recurrent cycles of booms and busts. Natural Resources in Latin America and the Caribbean: Beyond Booms and Busts? addresses the major concerns associated with commodity dependence, summarizing the state of the art in existing literature and filling in the knowledge gaps with new analysis. The report finds that some commonly accepted negative effects of dependence on natural resources are largely myths, while some are realities. But the authors find that all the effects can be managed, and they provide practical advice on how to do so. Issues covered include long-term fiscal growth, fiscal volatility, institutional impacts, and environmental and social effects. The report analyzes the implications for the region’s development and policies. Natural Resources in Latin America and the Caribbean: Beyond Booms and Busts? will be of interest to policy makers, academics,and analysts, as well as others interested in the economics of commodity markets and their role in economic development.




Published - June 2010
Globalization and the challenge for developing countries
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, GLOBALIZATION, FREE TRADE AREA, TRADE LIBERALIZATION

The paper argues that there are several key interrelated elements to globalization and that the future gains will derive from the degree to which countries are willing to embrace them together rather than in a sequenced fashion. Identifies some aspects of globalization which presents opportuntiese for erveloping countries and discusses appropriate policy actions.




Published - June 2001
Doing business with Saint Lucia
SAINT LUCIA, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Saint Lucia. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Saint Lucia.




Published - June 2007
Report on the production of trade statistics in the Caribbean region
CARIBBEAN, STATISTICAL DATA

The study suggests that the best source for obtaining trade data for the regional databases is the national statistics office in each country. The statistics offices collect data for the entire country’s trade and carries out extensive checking on the accuracy of the data.




Published - June 2001
Trade issues of concern to civil society
TRADE, FOREIGN TRADE, FOREIGN INVESTMENT, TRADE AGREEMENTS, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT

This document examines issues of concern to civil society as they relate to trade including investment, services, intellectual property rights environment, dispute settlement and asymmetrical treatment in trade agreements.




Published - June 2005
The impact of Free Trade Agreements in the application of Dominican Law 173
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, TRADE AGREEMENTS

The distribution and representation of foreign-made goods and services in the Dominican Republic is governed by Dominican Law 173 of 6 April 1966, as amended, on protection of local agents and distributors of merchandise ("Law 173"). This law has been greatly discussed and evaluated, since it grants extraordinary protection to the local agents and distributors, in case of unilateral termination by licensor. The salient features of Law 173 are the following: (a) is a so-called "public order" statute, i.e., its provisions cannot be superseded by private contract.




Published - June 2007
Shaping future GATS rules for trade in services
TRADE AGREEMENTS, GATS, SERVICES

This paper suggests possible improvements in the rules of the GATS agreement, in the specific commitments made by countries and in the negotiating methodology. Recommends improvements that can be made in the current round of service negotiations in the specific commitments made by countries and in the negotiating methodology.




Published - April 2001
The role the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) plays within the Caribbean Common Market Community (CARICOM) and in the Caribbean's relationship with the world economy
OECS, CARICOM, REGIONAL INTEGRATION

This paper was prepared exclusively for the Annual Conference of the International Studies Association Latin America and the Caribbean Regionalish in the global Economic Crisis II, New Orleans, USA, February 19, 2010.




Published - February 2010
Technical Barriers to Trade Part 2: Basic principles of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade
NONTARIFF BARRIERS, TRADE BARRIERS, WTO

The WTO Agreement on TBT encourages countries to use international standards in formulating technical regulations and voluntary standards, and in trade. It also requires that countries use guidelines and recommendations developed by international standardization organizations as the basis for their conformity assessment procedures.




Published - October 06, 2010
Directory of Associations of Specialized Importers in selected countries
OECD, EXPORT PROMOTION, IMPORT PROMOTION, EUROPE, JAPAN

Lists associations in OECD countries involved in the import/export trade. Gives addresses, product imported, level of membership and associated publications. Includes separate alphabetical product list which includes SITC Rev 2 codes and country information. For further information visit http://www.intracen.org/itc/trade-support/importers-associations/.




Published - 2017
The Economic Partnership Agreement between CARIFORUM and the European Union and the building of a post-colonial economy in the Caribbean
EPA, CARIFORUM, EU, TRADE AGREEMENTS, CARIBBEAN

Presentation at a public lecture at the Errol Barrow Centre for Creative Imagination, cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, March 11, 2008.




Published - March 11, 2008
Jamaica's National Export Strategy, 2015-2019
JAMAICA, EXPORT DEVELOPMENT, TRADE DEVELOPMENT, AGRO-PROCESSING, FILM AND ANIMATION, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES, MANUFACTURING, MINING, EXPORT FINANCING, TRADE FACILITATION, MARKET ACCESS, STANDARDS, QUALITY MANAGEMENT, CAPACITY BUILDING, PACKAGING, LABELLING

The aim of the National Export Strategy 2015-2019 is to help guide the development of priority sectors’ towards the achievement of the national economic goals of Jamaica. A number of methodologies and tools were employed to achieve the objectives of the NES development process. One of the cornerstone methodologies employed was extensive stakeholder consultation. A number of stakeholders were consulted prior to and during the NES development process through interviews, one-on-one meetings and focus group sessions. In addition, a Validation Workshop was held on January 21st and 22nd 2015, where stakeholders had the opportunity to pro-actively engage in the action planning process. Subsequently, stakeholders have been given an opportunity to review the draft National Export Strategy document and provide comments and feedback, which were taken into consideration in finalising the strategy.

A key methodology was visioning. The vision for the various priority sectors and crosscutting areas, as well as the overall vision for export development in Jamaica were crafted based on consultations with stakeholders and review of other strategic initiatives and policies. Some of the specific visions were taken directly from the National Export Strategy 2010-2013. Others were adapted from the Vision 2030 Jamaica – National Development Plan. All vision statements however, were reviewed by stakeholders and confirmed at the Validation Workshop. Stakeholders were also given the opportunity to offer feedback during the strategy finalisation process. An overview of the vision for the National Export Strategy 2015-2019 is presented in the figure below.




Published - August 2015
Technical assistance to Caribbean Export Development Agency for research on market structure of the handicraft sector in the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, and assessment of potential venues of CGCS 2009
TRADE FAIRS, HANDICRAFT, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, PUERTO RICO

The study is divided in 2 chapters. The first one refers to the market structure in the Dominican Republic and the analysis of the possible venues to host CGCS 2009; and the second one refers to the characteristics of the handcraft market in Puerto Rico. In the first chapter we will see the definitions of the terms that we will use in the study and in the present document, in order to continue with the quantitative and qualitative result thrown by the market investigation made in Dominican Republic. Chapter 2 will address the differential characteristics of the Puerto Rican market. Hard copy only.




Published - September- October 2008
Agreement establishing the free trade area between the CARICOM Community and the Dominican Republic
TRADE, CARICOM, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, TRADE AGREEMENTS

The fundamental objective of the Agreement shall be to strengthen the commercial and economic relations between the Parties through: the establishment of a Free Trade Area between the Parties consistent with the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organisation (the WTO);

  1. the promotion and expansion of the sale of goods originating in the territories of the Parties through, Interalia, free access to the markets of the Parties, elimination of non-tariff barriers to trade, and the establishment of a system of Rules of Origin, Customs Co-operation and the Harmonisation of Technical, Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary Procedures;
  2. the progressive liberalisation of trade in services;
  3. the liberalisation of the movement of capital between the Parties, and the promotion and protection of investments aimed at taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the markets of the Parties, and the strengthening of their competitiveness;
  4. the promotion of the active participation of private economic agents with a view to deepening and broadening the economic relations between the Parties, including the promotion and establishment of joint ventures;
  5. the promotion and development of cooperative activities in the following areas: agriculture, mining, industry, construction, tourism, transportation, telecommunications, banking, insurance, capital markets, professional services and science and technology;
  6. the discouragement of anti-competitive business practices between and within the Parties.



Published - [2005]
Explanatory document for the Agreement on Trade, Economic and Technical Cooperation between CARICOM and the Republic of Colombia
CARICOM, COLOMBIA, TRADE AGREEMENTS, TRADE REGULATIONS, FREE ZONES, SHIPPING, ECONOMIC CONDITIONS, PACKAGING, LABELLING, STANDARDS

The fundamental objective of this Agreement shall be to strengthen the trade and economic relations and technical cooperation between the Parties through:

(a) the promotion and expansion of the sale of goods originating in CARICOM and Colombia with particular emphasis on exports from CARICOM States in the early stages of the implementation of this Agreement;

(b) the promotion and protection of investments aimed at taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the markets of the Parties and strengthening their competitiveness in the international market;

(c) the facilitation of the creation and operation of regional joint ventures;

(d) the development of technical and scientific cooperation activities which may be agreed upon between the Parties;

(e) the promotion of private sector activities, including business exchanges between the Parties.




Published - [2004]
Guide to US food labeling
USA, FOOD, LABELLING

The Guide to US Food Labelling Law provides guidance on how to comply with the requirements of the Nutrition Labelling and Education Act of 1990. It explains the law and provides advice on avoiding enforcement actions by regulatory agencies. It includes information on the history of food labelling laws, the role of government agencies and the rules applying to dietary supplement labelling. For further information visit http://www.thompson.com/public/offerpage.jsp?promo=FOOD.




Published - [2010]
Trade policy and Caribbean development: prospects and options
CARIBBEAN, TRADE POLICY, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

The research was conducted on five countries and with data collected on a number of sectors. The countries selected were Barbados, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. This selection sought to anticipate differences in the effects of different patterns of development in the larger countries vis-à-vis a possible divergent experience in the Windward and Leeward Islands.




Published - [2000]
The basics of exporting
USA, GUIDE, EXPORT REGULATIONS

International trade may appear to be a complex undertaking requiring extensive Resources, a large and expensive marketing and export department, a significant volume of the product to be marketed, and fluency in the language of the targeted countries. This is not the case. The goal of this handbook is to lay these myths to rest and open the world of exporting to companies that have previously abandoned the idea and new-to-export-companies. We will begin by exploring common misconceptions. The remainder of the handbook expands upon important issues for a successful export business.




Published - [2002]
WIPO patent information services for developing countries
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, PATENTS, WIPO, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Provides information on WIPO Patent Information Services for developing countries (WPIS), their usefulness and how they contribute to research and development activities and industrial development projects of developing countries.




Published - [2002]
Harmful tax competition: an emerging global issue
OECD, NON TARIFF BARRIERS


Published - 1998
Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act: impact on U.S. industries and consumers and beneficiary countries. 21st Report, 2011-12
USA, GSP, CARIBBEAN, TRADE AGREEMENTS, INTERNATIONAL TRADE

This report is the 21st in a series of reports prepared by the U.S. International Trade Commission (Commission) under section 215 of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) of 1983 (19 U.S.C. 2704). Section 215 requires the Commission to submit to Congress and the President biennial reports regarding the economic impact of the CBERA program on U.S. industries and consumers, and on the economy of the beneficiary countries. As part of its report the Commission is required, first, to include an assessment of the actual effect, during the period covered by the report, of the program on the U.S. economy generally as well as on specific domestic industries which produce articles that are like or directly competitive with articles being imported into the United States from beneficiary countries. Second, the Commission is required to provide an assessment of the probable future effect that the program will have on the U.S. economy generally, as well as on domestic industries, before the provisions of the program terminate. This report covers the period 2011–12.




Published - December 2011
Caribbean region investment climate study - Final report
BELIZE, GRENADA, ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES, ST. KITTS AND NEVIS, ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA, ST. LUCIA, DOMINICA, OECS, INVESTMENT CLIMATE, POWER ELECTRICITY, WATER AND SANITATION, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, TRANSPORTATION, LAND, LABOUR, CAPITAL

This study has captured a great deal of information on the investment climate in each of the 7 countries covered.  Unfortunately, uniform data were not available across all countries, making it difficult to carry out quantitative regional comparisons to establish competitiveness in all the areas surveyed.  Where comparable data are available, which is mainly in infrastructure, comparisons on key indicators have been made if useful.  In all areas of the investment climate examined, the qualitative information gathered helped supplement or stand in for the numerical data and using the totality of information available allows for some useful analysis.




Published - [2011]
Report on the legal regime of free trade in services
CARICOM, WTO, CARIBBEAN, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, FREE TRADE AREA, SERVICES

This report examines the international law relating to trade in services as it relates to the member states of the Caribbean Community in the new era of the WTO and GATS. Discusses the extent to which requirements of the new law needs in principle to be met by legislation at the national level and examines the aspects of the law of Commonwealth Caribbean countries which pose, or are capable of posing obstacles to free trade in services. Hard copy only.




Published - [1998]
Role of Intellectual Property in Innovation and New Product Development
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, WIPO, PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Technological innovation may be classified in several ways: product vs. process, radical (basic or fundamental) vs. incremental (improvement), and disruptive vs. sustaining (sequential and/or complementary). Other important types of (non-technological) innovations that do not result from scientific and/or technological R&D, but are often crucial for profitably marketing the products and services resulting from the investment made in R&D are: marketing innovation, institutional innovation, and complementary innovation.  In this article, however, the focus is on technological innovations. Nowadays, it is generally accepted that in a knowledge-driven, competitive business environment, technological innovation (hereafter, for the sake of simplicity, simply called ‘innovation’) is a principal determinant of successful firm performance. But differences of opinion persist amongst economists and policymakers about the exact role of intellectual property (IP) in relation to innovation. On the one hand, in theory, the IP system is considered to be absolutely necessary “to encourage creative intellectual endeavor in the public interest, and on the other, some observers believe that, in practice, the IP system hinders competition to the extent that it is often seen to be playing a negative role in innovation.  Hence the need for a systematic and periodic study and review of the actual use by businesses of the tools of the IP system so that economists are able to provide empirical, evidence-based guidance to policymakers to adapt the IP system so that it continues to serve the conflicting private and public interest in spurring further innovation and its wide diffusion in the shortest possible time. This article, however, does not deal with these otherwise important aspects.




Published - [2009]
Doing business with Canada
CANADA, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Canada. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Canada.




Published - November 2007
A Comparative Guide to the Chile- United States Free Trade Agreement and the Dominican Republic- Central America- United States Free Trade Agreement
TRADE AGREEMENT, CHILE, USA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, CENTRAL AMERICA

This document consists of two main parts: a compartive study of the provisions in the Chile-US free trade agreement and the Dominican Republic-Central America- US Free trade Agreement; and comprative matrix of the legal text of the Agreements.




Published - January 2005
Small economies in the face of globalisation
GLOBALISATION, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, CARIBBEAN

Explores the relevance of economies of scale, less diversification and macroeconomic policy autonomy, both at the conceptual and empirical level focusing on the Caribbean economies. Section I takes a look at the relationship between country size, specialisation and growth. Section II explores the effects of vulnerability to external shocks and limited macro-economic autonomy. Section III examines implications for national, regional and global policies.




Published - May 2002
Trade policy review Saint Lucia - Report by the Government
SAINT LUCIA, TRADE POLICY

Please visit  http://www.sice.oas.org/ctyindex/LCA/LCANatlDocs_e.asp to download this document and other related documents on Saint Lucia.




Published - October 01, 2007
Trade policy review Grenada - Report by the Government
GRENADA, TRADE POLICY, WTO

Please visit http://www.sice.oas.org/ctyindex/GRD/GRDNatlDocs_e.asp to download this document and other related information on Grenada.




Published - October 01, 2007
Doing business with Dominica
DOMINICA, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Dominica. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Dominica.




Published - May 2007
Doing business with Cuba
CUBA,TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Cuba.  Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country.  Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Cuba.




Published - May 2007
Doing business with Antigua and Barbuda
ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Antigua and Barbuda. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Antigua and Barbuda.




Published - May 2007
Doing business with Barbados
BARBADOS, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Barbados. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Barbados.




Published - May 2007
Doing business with Costa Rica
COSTA RICA, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Cost Rica. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Costa Rica.




Published - May 2007
Doing business with Belize
BELIZE, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Belize. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Belize.




Published - May 2007
Doing business with Curacao
CURACAO, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Curacao. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Curacao.




Published - May 2007
Doing business with Guadeloupe
GUADELOUPE, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Guadeloupe. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Guadeloupe.




Published - May 2007
Doing business with Haiti
HAITI, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Haiti. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Haiti.




Published - May 2007
Doing business with Martinique
MARTINIQUE, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Martinique. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Martinique.




Published - May 2007
Doing business with St. Kitts and Nevis
ST. KITTS AND NEVIS, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the St. Kitts and Nevis. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the St. Kitts and Nevis.




Published - May 2007
Doing business with Suriname
SURINAME, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Suriname. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Suriname.




Published - May 2007
Building capacity to trade: A road map for development partners: Insights from Africa and the Caribbean
AFRICA, CARIBBEAN, TRADE, COTONOU, ACP, INTERNATIONAL TRADE

A study of best practice reveals that three elements are critical to an efficient trade policy process: government leadership, institutional capacity and the inclusion of all actors, including the relevant ministries (not just those in charge of ‘trade’), the business sector, trade promotion and regulatory bodies, think-tanks and other civil-society organisations. In countries in which this process is either inefficient or close to non-existent, donors need to seek to support its structuring and sustainability. Yet the various reports that constitute the background of this paper show that, while they do so to some extent, they generally operate in a dispersed manner, and very rarely adopt a comprehensive approach. The second part of the paper highlights some of the main success factors, as well as the common limitations, of TCD, based on the experiences of donors and recipients in Africa and the Caribbean.




Published - July 2001
The offshore services value chain: developing countries and the crisis
OFFSHORE FINANCIAL SERVICES, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, ECONOMIC CRISIS

This paper analyses the recent evolution and impact of the global economic crisis on the offshore services industry. Using a global value chains framework, the authors classify the offshore services sector in a comprehensive set of general and industry-specific activities that correspond to different segments and stages in the value-adding process for services. They analyse the impact of the economic crisis on the industry. The paper concludes that the offshore services industry will continue to offer growth opportunities for developing countries not only among existing market players, but also a range of new countries. The industry has the potential to become an important source for employment and economic growth around the globe. Download the paper at: http://go.worldbank.org/1QK77PG4W0.




Published - April, 2010
Survey on web dissemination of trade information
INTERNET, INFORMATION SERVICES

Reviews 100 websites of trade support institutions and other trade providers. Highlights the large variety of dissemination options available to trade information providers.  Hard copy only.




Published - April, 2002
Impact of sanitary and phytosanitary measures on developing countries
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, STANDARDS

The study involved a series of ten developing country case studies and a survey of SPS contact/enquiry points in all low- and middle-income countries that are members of the WTO and/or Codex Alimentarius. In many cases the impact of SPS measures could not be quantified and the results should be interpreted with care. However, the study does highlight a number of key issues and gives credence to the concerns that developing countries have themselves expressed about the impact of developed country SPS requirements and the weaknesses of the SPS Agreement.




Published - [2000]
Truths and myths about the openness of EU trade policy and the use of EU trade preferences
EUROPEAN UNION, TRADE POLICY, TRADE PREFERENCE, TRADE PRACTICES, PREFERENTIAL TARIFFS

This paper firstly explores the share of EU imports which is subject to duties, how much of the dutiable imports that is covered by trade preferences and how deep these preferences are. Secondly,it analyses the extent to which EU trade preferences are being used. These factors are explored for more countries/country grouping and sectors over a longer and more recent period of time (2003-2007) compared to previous studies. The paper further presents estimates of actual preference margins by developing country groups and sectors, aggregated from tariff line level. In a gravity model setting, the preferential margins then provide a more refined measure of trade preference compared to binary variables commonly used in the literature. Regressing these measure on EU preferential imports, as opposed to total imports, introduces another novelty compared to methods used in other studies.




Published - April, 2009
Manual for writing results based project proposals
MANUAL, GUIDE, PROJECT BASED PROPOSALS

As part of the Hub initiative this Training Manual has been prepared for ongoing use by the BPSA-PSTT and others involved in proposal writing for the private sector. Its purpose is to assist private sector organisations to:  i: better understand donor requirements;  ii: convert their business needs into Results Based development proposals; and  iii: obtain grant funding.  The Manual presents a generic, Results Based approach to project design and proposal writing while providing examples of approaches and templates used by specific donor agencies. In following these guidelines to proposal writing, private sector organisations will build appreciation of the Results Based management practices and effective decision making required by donor agencies and funders throughout the project management cycle from the identification of the business idea, problem or opportunity, through to project and proposal formulation, implementation and evaluation.




Published - April, 2012
Doing business with Brazil
BRAZIL, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Brazil. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Brazil.




Published - April 2008
V Summit of the Americas Preparatory Process: Private Sector Subregional Consultations
OAS, TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

The consultations with the private sector were organized through coordinators representing the institutional private sector structures within the integration groupings as well as regional business associations. This document includes the inputs from the following organizations: Federation of Chambers of Commerce of Central America (FECAMCO); Caribbean Association of Industry and Commerce (CAIC); Council of the Americas; Latin American Business Council (CEAL); Business Technical Advisory Committee on Labor Matters (CEATAL); Latin American and Caribbean Association of Information Technology Entities (ALETI); The Andean Business Advisory Council; Private Sector of the Americas and the business sector of the Economic-Social Consultative Forum of Mercosur.




Published - March 2009
Rebuilding Haiti: A new approach to international cooperation
HAITI, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, TRADE POLICY, ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

This policy briefing from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) calls for a new approach for Haiti’s reconstruction and long-term economic development based on increasing and improving State capacities and respecting the country’s ownership of the process. It says recovery must be a shared responsibility between Haiti and its development partners, but donor generosity is only one component of success. The new approach to international cooperation should target investment in productive capacity and infrastructure, improved market access, domestic resource mobilization, and greater agricultural productivity. It must constitute an integrated approach to macroeconomic, industrial and trade policy to generate employment and reduce poverty.  The document is available at http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/presspb20103_en.pdf




Published - March 2010
Report on Proceedings, Private Sector Summit 2002: Competitive Private Sector Development: An imperative for the future
TRADE DEVELOPMENT, COMPETITION, INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, CARIBBEAN

CDB, in association with the Caribbean Association of Industry and Commerce (CAIC), invited regional private sector interests, regional financiers, multilateral institutions, donor agencies and regional and international organisations to participate in a Summit to determine the needs and priorities of the regional private sector and to explore ways of addressing these needs.

More broadly, the Summit had the following objectives that were largely met:

  1. to enhance dialogue and information exchange amongst and between the Private and Public Sectors of the Caribbean;
  2. to deepen the understanding of the impact of Globalisation on Caribbean Private and Public Sectors;
  3. to develop and make accessible pro-active support mechanisms and strategies which would improve the Caribbean Private Sector’s international competitiveness; and
  4. to increase the role of the CDB and other multilateral and donor agencies in facilitating the Caribbean Private Sector transformation.



Published - March 2002
A Guide to Doing Business in Barbados
BARBADOS, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES, IMPORT POLICY, TRADE POLICY, INVESTMENT POLICY

This publication outlines the procedures for setting up and operating a business in Barbados.




Published - March 2012
Second revision of the Cotonou Agreement - agreed consolidated text, 11 March 2010
TRADE AGREEMENT, COTONOU, ACP, EU

Following a series of negotiation sessions, with the last session having taken place on March 11, 2010, the EU and the ACP parties have reached agreement on the included set of text proposals.  This document provides information on the changes to the Cotonou Agreement - agreed consolidated text, March 11, 2010.




Published - March 2010
Trade Policy Review. Report by the Secretariat Paraguay. Revision
PARAGUAY, TRADE POLICY

Please visit https://docs.wto.org/dol2fe/Pages/FE_Search/FE_S_S009-DP.aspx?language=E&CatalogueIdList=82211,76503,41516,4829&CurrentCatalogueIdIndex=0&FullTextHash=&HasEnglishRecord=True&HasFrenchRecord=True&HasSpanishRecord=True to download this document and other related information on Paraguay.



Published - March 2011
The application of the Dominican Republic- Central American- United State Free Trade Agreement
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, TRADE AGREEMENT, CENTRAL AMERICA, USA

The paper is divided into six sections. The first section discusses the issue from a conceptual viewpoint, examining and reviewing the Central American precedents. The second section looks at the approach that the DR-CAFTA has adopted in terms of its application, and the nature of its obligations. The third section analyzes the relationship between the DR-CAFTA and Central American integration instrument, with reference to their general rules and to the concrete implications of those in each of the thematic area of the agreement. The fourth section reviews the application of the agreement between each Central American Country and the DR. The fifth section dicusses some considerations with respect to the oppoertunities and challenges of the multilateral application of the agreement.The sixth section offers some final comments.




Published - March 2005
The impact of the global crisis, the responses of Caribbean governments and the choices available to Caribbean businesses
CARIBBEAN, ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

Paper presented by Delisle Worrell at the 3rd Meeting of Caribbean Business Support Organisations, held in the Dominican Republic from March 24-25, 2009, under the theme "Remaining Competitive in a Global Crisis."




Published - March 2009
World tariff profiles 2010
WTO, STATISTICS, TARIFFS, MARKET ACCESS CONDITIONS, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, NON TARIFF BARRIERS

The World Tariff Profi les is a joint publication of the WTO, ITC and UNCTAD devoted to market access for goods. This statistical yearbook contains a comprehensive compilation of the main tariff parameters for each of the 153 WTO Members and other countries and customs territories. Each country profile presents information on tariffs imposed by each economy on its imports complemented with an analysis of the market access conditions it faces in its major export markets. The publication is presented in three main parts. The first part shows summary statistics for all countries and territories for all products, as well as a break-down into agricultural and non-agricultural products. The second part shows for each of these countries and territories, one full page with disaggregation by sectors and duty ranges. It also contains a section on the market access conditions faced in their respective major export markets. The third part contains a summary table on concessions on Other Duties and Charges (ODCs).




Published - 2010
The Caribbean Court of Justice: the history and analysis of the debate
CARICOM, SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY

From the historical outline of this debate, four apparently distinct periods, which are now merging into the present fifth period or phase, will be identified. The first phase is that which immediately follows April 1970, and goes to the middle of the 1970s. It is noteworthy that as early as 1947, a Meeting of West Indian Governors reportedly reflected on the need for a West Indian Court of Appeal and urged its establishment. The hallmark of the immediate post Pratt and Morgan period is emotionalism and a departure from rationalism in the debate. The period also witnessed the rise of two factions which express support or otherwise for the establishment of a Caribbean final court in accordance with their various positions on capital punishment. Emerging from the emotionalism which was thrown up by the Pratt and Morgan decision, Part III of this paper considers emotionalism as an issue in the debate. It seeks to show that emotionalism featured prominently in the termination of appeals to the Privy Council from some other Commonwealth jurisdictions. It also looks briefly at emotionalism in the context of the debate in the Caribbean. Part IV considers the present state of the debate. It indicates that a degree of emotionalism is still attached to the debate following Pratt and Morgan. However, it highlights the attempts which are being made to move the debate away from the emotional and back to the rational and pragmatic, and which distinguishes this period from the immediate post Pratt and Morgan era. Part V follows the movement to return the debate to the rational. It therefore distills the issues which have been preferred both against and for the establishment of the Caribbean Court of Justice in their classical theoretical context. It goes further, however, to focus on the practical steps which are being taken to address the concerns which have been raised by these issues. Among other considerations, this Part alludes to the extremely critical role which the Court will perform in the deepening of the regional integration movement and the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSM&E). Part VI is, however, substantially dedicated to this aspect, while Part VII looks at the way forward towards the establishment of the Court.




Published - 2000
Mercosur Report Number 14
MERCOSOR, BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES, SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

Through the publication of this MERCOSUR Report, INTAL's intention is to facilitate access to information by potential readers who are interested in this region. Furthermore, the aim is to convey the interest that MERCOSUR arises at the sub-regional level, facilitating dissemination to the international community through the publication of a report in English, besides both official languages in the region: Spanish and Portuguese.  The period covered by MERCOSUR Report 14 (July 2008-June 2009) was marked by the international crisis. The inflationary phase of the crisis (August 2007-June 2008) fuelled certain expansionary trends in MERCOSUR countries. Once this phase had run its course, MERCOSUR’s performance began to feel the negative effects of the world economy. As of the fourth quarter of 2008, the collapse of activity levels and global trade, falling commodity prices, and financing difficulties were reflected in recessionary trends within the bloc. However, as of March 2009, there were clear signs of stabilization in the world economy, if not of outright recovery. This marks a shift in the international scenario compared to the previous period.  http://www.iadb.org/intal/aplicaciones/uploads/publicaciones/i_MERCOSUR_Report_14.pdf




Published - February, 2010
The relation between international trade and freshwater scarcity
INTERNATIONAL TRADE, WATER

This report reviews current knowledge with respect to four questions: What is the effect of international trade on domestic water resources? What is the effect of water availability on international trade? Can international trade increase global water-use efficiency? And finally, what type of international trade rules would promote a more wise use of water worldwide? For further information visit  http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/wtr10_hoekstra_e.htm




Published - 2010
A guide to investing in Trinidad and Tobago 2012
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO, ECONOMIC CONDITIONS, FOREIGN INVESTMENT, INVESTMENT REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES

A Guide to Investing in Trinidad and Tobago, is written and revised annually by InvesTT Limited (InvesTT), a member of the eTecK group. It is intended to provide investors and potential investors with basic, yet useful information on doing business in Trinidad and Tobago and the investment and tax climate that currently exists. While every effort is taken to make the guide as complete and accurate as possible, it is not intended to be a comprehensive statement of the law or used as a substitute for appropriate professional advice. invesTT waives any responsibility or liability for any errors or facet of opinion herein.




Published - 2012
Trade Globalisation and Emerging Protectionism since the Crisis (ECIPE working paper No.2/2010)
TRADE, TRADE POLICY, ECONOMIC CRISIS, PROTECTIONISM, KEYNESIANISM

The global economic crisis, and governments’ responses to the crisis, did not precipitate a descent into 1930s-style protectionism. That is a relief. But it provides no refuge from policy measures that will slow down globalisation and growth in the next decade. “Creeping protectionism” is increasing, and the crisis has reinforced trends visible before the start of the crisis. New patterns of protectionism are similar to developments in the 1970s and 1980s rather than the 1930s. Domestic “crisis interventions”, especially in capital and product markets, and the return of Big Government, will spill over to external policy, with more defensive trade policies as a consequence.




Published - 2010
Human Development Report 2007/2008: Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world
UNDP, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, DEVELOPED COUNTRES

The design of good policies will have to be mindful of the danger of excessive reliance on bureaucratic controls. While government leadership is going to be essentia l in correcting the huge externality that is climate change, markets and prices will have to be put to work, so that private sector decisions can lead more naturally to optimal investment and production decisions.  Carbon and carbon equivalent gases have to be priced so that using them reflects their true social cost. This should be the essence of mitigation policy. The world has spent decades getting rid of quantity restrictions in many domains, not least foreign trade. This is not the time to come back to a system of ma ssive quotas and bureaucratic controls because of climate change.  Emission targets and energy efficiency targets have an important role to play but it is the price system that has to make it easier to achieve our goals. This will require a much deeper dialogue between economists and climate scientists as well as environmentalists than what we have seen so far. We do hope that this Human Development Report will contribute to such a dialogue.




Published - 2007

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