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World Trade Statistical Review 2016
TRADE STATISTICS, WTO, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, STATISTICAL DATA

“World Trade Statistical Review” provides a detailed analysis of the latest developments in world trade. It will be produced on an annual basis and replaces “International Trade Statistics”, the WTO’s former annual statistical publication.  All data used in this report, as well as additional charts and tables not included, can be downloaded from the WTO web site at www.wto.org/statistics.




Published - 2016
NAFTA at 20: North America's Free-Trade Area and its impact on agriculture
TRADE AGREEMENTS, NAFTA, USA, CANADA, MEXICO, NORTH AMERICA FREE TRADE AGREEMENT, FREE TRADE AGREEMENT, CUSTA, TRADE, INVESTMENT, SANITARY, PHYTOSANITARY

This report examines the integration of North America’s agricultural and food markets as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), implemented in 1994. NAFTA has had a profound effect on many aspects of North American agriculture over the past two decades. With a few exceptions, intraregional agricultural trade is now completely free of tariff and quota restrictions, and the agricultural sectors of the member countries—Canada, Mexico, and the United States—have become far more integrated, as is evidenced by rising trade in a wider range of agricultural products, substantial levels of cross-border investment, and important changes in consumption and production. The report also examines recent disputes among its constituents and identifies opportunities for further reforms of mutual benefit to the member countries, with particular attention devoted to the NAFTA governments’ efforts to seek deeper regional integration through such means as regulatory cooperation and modifying the agreement’s rules of origin and broader access to markets in other parts of the world through the negotiation of additional free-trade agreements.




Published - February 2015
WTO Annual Report 2014
WTO, ANNUAL REPORT, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, COMPETITION POLICY, TRADE POLICY

The 2014 Annual Report is split into three main sections. The first contains a message from the WTO Director-General. The second section provides a brief overview of 2013 and some background information on the WTO, while the third has more in-depth information.




Published - 2014
World Intellectual Property report: Breakthrough innovation and economic growth
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, TRADE MARKS, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, SMEs

This report endeavors to provide an analytical input into that debate. It explores the channels through which innovation promotes growth, and the ecosystems in which innovation flourishes. In so doing, the report pays special attention to the role of the intellectual property (IP) system, which at its heart seeks to support innovative activity. In addition to reviewing historical patterns of growth and conceptualizing the linkages between innovation and growth, the report’s main analytical contribution consists of six case studies of breakthrough innovations. In particular, it focuses on three historical innovations and three innovations which currently hold breakthrough potential (see table). Through case studies, one can take account of the different nature of innovative breakthroughs and the evolving context in which innovation takes place. In addition, even though many conclusions are specific to the six cases and may not be generalizable, the commonalities and differences presented by the cases offer food for thought on which policy approaches work best in alternative circumstances.




Published - 2015
Strategies for a successful Caribbean music industry in the global market. Branding intellectual property: The case of Jamaica music
MUSIC, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARKS, CARIFORUM, JAMAICA

Presentation by Andrea Davis providing common issues, SWOT analysis and recommended strategiesfor the Jamaican music industry.




Published - [2015]
The ecomonic contribution of the core UK music industry
MUSIC, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARKS, UNITED KINGDOM, UK

This report significantly improves upon official measurement of music’s economic contribution. It presents a robust definition of the core music industry, informed by a clear rationale. It identifies all forms of revenue that are captured within this definition and measures the GVA (Gross Value Added), export and employment directly contributed by these activities.




Published - [2012]
Survey on consumer satisfaction with the retail distribution of goods. Product market report: fresh fruit and vegetables
FRUIT, VEGETABLES, EROPEAN UNION, MARKETING RESEARCH

The objective of this report is to present the main findings of the survey for the market for Fresh fruit and vegetables. It details consumers’ satisfaction with various aspects of this market. The first level of analysis aims to describe consumers’ feelings about the market and about elements that constitute their retailer’s services as well as the problems encountered when purchasing its products. For each question asked in the questionnaire, a chart presents the results at EU and country level. When relevant, we also highlight the differences by distribution channel and socio-demographic profile of the respondent. The main indicator used in the analysis (which is widely admitted amongst the research experts’ community) is the percentage of satisfied and dissatisfied consumers, based on the scores given on a scale from 1 to 10. “Satisfied” are those who gave a satisfaction score of 8 to 10; “dissatisfied” are those who gave a score of 1 to 4. For the clarity of the analysis, we do not show the neutral consumers on the charts or those who could not give an answer to the question (“don’t know”). This is why the figures shown in most of the charts do not add up to 100%. If there are particularly large proportions of Don't know answers this is however mentioned in the text. The second level of analysis presented in this report shows the interaction of key satisfaction indicators so as to explain consumers’ overall satisfaction. For more information, the reader will find the full results of the survey as well as a methodological note, country reports and an overall report on DG SANCO web site:http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/strategy/cons_satisfaction_en.htm




Published - June 2009
Economic Partnership Agreements: drivers for development
ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT, TRADE AGREEMENTS, FTAA, WTO, ACP, CARIBBEAN, CAPACITY BUILDING, TRADE POLICY, TRADE LIBERALIZATION, CSME, EPA

This booklet provides answers to the many questions received on the Economic Partnership Agreements by Louis Mitchell since he took office as European Commissioner for Development policy and relations with the African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries.




Published - [2015]
CBI market survey: the (organic) coffee, tea and cocoa market in the EU
COCOA, TEA, COFFEE, EU, MARKETING RESEARCH, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

This CBI market survey profiles the (organic) coffee, tea and cocoa market in the EU. The (organic) coffee, tea and cocoa market in individual EU countries is discussed in separate market surveys. These market surveys as well as EU export marketing guidelines for (organic) coffee, tea and cocoa can be downloaded from http://www.cbi.nl/marketinfo.




Published - May 2007
CBI market survey: the jewellery market in the EU
JEWELLERY, EU, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

This survey profiles the EU market for precious jewellery and costume jewellery. The precious jewellery market includes jewellery pieces made of gold, platinum or silver all of which can be in plain form or with (semi-) precious gemstones, diamonds or pearls. The costume jewellery market includes imitation jewellery pieces of base metal plain or with semi-precious stones, glass, beads or crystals. It also includes imitation jewellery of any other material, cuff links and hair accessories. This survey excludes second-hand jewellery and luxury goods such as gold and silver smith’s ware (tableware, toilet ware, smokers’ requisites etc.) and watches.




Published - September, 2008
Grenada nutmeg sector development strategy 2010-2015
NUTMEG, GRENADA, STRATEGY

The Nutmeg Sector Strategy has been developed to address the revitalization of this important Sector. The methodology for developing the Strategy has been participatory, using the Value Chain Approach with inputs from over 70 sector stakeholders drawn from the private and public sectors. This partnership is a part of the E.U. funded All ACP Agriculture Commodities Programme (AAACP) with the leadership from the Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Forestry and Fisheries and the International Trade Centre (I.T.C.). Grenada is the second largest world producer of nutmegs and mace after Indonesia, and is known for high quality nutmegs and as the only producer of the world’s No.1 mace. Traditionally, nutmeg and mace have been exported mainly to Europe to be used primarily in meat preservation and sausage making. In addition to its values in the culinary field, there is now strong evidence to support its usage in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. Though recognised for its superior product, Grenada lags behind in market research and development and its potential is limited because of the lack of an appropriate Market Information System (M.I.S.) to facilitate the gathering, processing and storage of domestic and international trade data so vital for informed decision-making. This Strategy is designed to provide opportunities and potential for the Sector – its stakeholders and beneficiaries. It is  anticipated that its implementation would generally enhance Grenada’s economic development and would specifically contribute in a meaningful way to the rejuvenation of the rural economy.




Published - July 2010
EU market survey 2005: fresh fruit and vegetables
FRUIT, VEGETABLES, EROPEAN UNION, MARKETING RESEARCH

This EU market survey profiles the EU market for fresh fruit and vegetables and consists of two parts. Part A provides market information for he major national markets within the EU and providing statistical market information on consumption, production and trade, and information on trade structure. The selected markets are: The Netherlands, Germany, France, the UK, Italy, Spain and Belgium. Part A also covers the requirements of the EU market in terms of product quality, packaging, labelling and social, health & safety and environmental standards. After having read Part A, it is important for an exporter to analyse the target markets, sales channels and potential customers in order to formulate marketing and product strategies. Part B subsequently aims to assist (potential) exporters in developing countries in their export-decision-making process. Exporters are advised to consult CBI’s Export Planner, a guide that shows how to set up export activities systematically, before using the marketing guidelines in this publication.




Published - April 2005
Cocoa market update
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

Cultivation of cocoa is a delicate process, as the trees are susceptible to changing weather patterns, diseases, and insects. Unlike larger, industrialized agribusinesses, the vast majority of cocoa comes from small, family-run farms, which often rely on outdated farming practices and have limited organizational leverage. Steadily increasing demand from worldwide consumers encourages a number of global efforts and funds committed to support and improve cocoa farm sustainability. This cocoa market updated looks at production, consumption, value chain and price of cocoa.




Published - April 01, 2014
Profiling Caribbean Women Entrepreneurs: Business Environment, Sectoral Constraints and Programming Lessons
WOMEN, CARIBBEAN, CARICOM, TRADE, GENDER

The report "Profiling Caribbean Women Entrepreneurs: Business Environment, Sectoral Constraints and Programming Lessons" is available at http://www.infodev.org/EPIC.  This report seeks to redress the current paucity of information on growth-oriented women entre­preneurs in the Caribbean region by drawing on various data sources to estimate their numbers and sectoral focus. At the same time, it develops an understanding of the main issues facing women in their businesses and their future growth potential.

Three main concepts are used throughout the report: entrepreneurship, innovation, and growth-orientation. Entrepreneurship is used in its widest sense in relation to the support environment and the process of starting and running businesses. Innovation is considered the launching of new or improved products, services, processes, or business models to drive differentiation and/or efficiency for enhanced competitiveness. Growth orientation relates to individual drive, ambition, and potential to grow a business, while growth potential relates to the potential of the sector to grow.




Published - June 2015
Exploring Firm-Level Innovation and Productivity in Developing Countries: The Perspective of Caribbean Small States
ACCESS TO FINANCE, CARIBBEAN, COMPETITION, ELECTRICITY, FIRM PERFORMANCE, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT, GENDER, INNOVATION, PRODUCTIVITY, PUBLIC POLICY, WOMEN

Using micro-level data, this publication provides new and insightful findings on the determinants of firm innovation and productivity in a region with scarce empirical research: the Caribbean. Until very recently, the Caribbean did not have internationally comparable, statistically relevant data at the firm level to perform empirical analysis of what drives firm performance and innovation. The chapters that make up this publication use two datasets to examine the impact of different variables related to innovation and firm performance that are of interest to regional policymakers. The chapters are part of the “Cutting Edge Research on Productivity, Technology and Innovation” (RGCC1066) research project, which was coordinated by the Competitiveness and Innovation Division of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). As a collection, the chapters seek to unearth the relationship between different variables of interest and their impact on innovation, productivity, and/or performance at the firm level.  In turn, the variables of interest have been chosen to align with major areas of concern for policymakers in the Caribbean.




Published - 2017
Trade and gender: issues and interactions
GENDER, WOMEN, TRADE, MEN, TRADE LIBERALIZATION; ECONOMICS OF GENDER

Increased global integration affects groups of individuals differently. This paper examines ways in which greater integration through trade impacts women and men differently, and ensuing implications for growth. The paper finds that trade creates jobs for women in export-oriented sectors. Jobs that bring more household resources under women’s control lead to greater investments in the health and education of future generations. Although women are more than ever formally employed, differences in wages earned by men and women persist in all countries. Women also have less access to productive resources, time and, particularly in many developing countries, education. Professional women continue to encounter discrimination in hiring and promotion, including in OECD countries.  The impact of trade liberalisation on women is important not only because they represent over half of any population, but also because they face constraints which make them less able to benefit from liberalisation. Once different impacts are ascertained, well-designed policy responses may aid women in taking advantage of greater openness to trade.  All Trade Policy Working Papers are now available through the OECD’s Internet website at: http://www.oecd.org/trade.




Published - 2005
Gender and Free Trade Agreements: Best Practices and Policy Guidance
WOMEN, TRADE, MARKET OPPORTUNITIES, GENDER, TRADE LIBERALIZATION, COLOMBIA, PERU, CANADA, TRADE AGREEMENTS

This paper identifies best practices and provides policy guidance on how public policy can promote the participation of women entrepreneurs, women producers and women-led export firms in accessing market opportunities through trade agreements. It has been prepared for regional workshops of the "Gender Equity and Canadian Free Trade Agreements (FTAs)" sub-project of the Canada-Americas Trade Related Technical Assistance Program (CATRTA).

Specifically, the paper:

  • Provides a brief overview of the evidence on gender and trade liberalization (section 2);
  • Identifies key obstacles that reduce the participation of women entrepreneurs, women producers and women-led export firms in accessing the market opportunities of free trade agreements (section 3);
  • Sets out global, regional and bilateral, best practices in promoting the participation of women entrepreneurs, women producers and women-led export firms in accessing the market opportunities of free trade agreements (section 4);
  • Provides policy guidance to stakeholders in Peru and Colombia to further this agenda (section 5).

The paper is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the literature on gender and trade liberalization, but rather a pragmatic reference guide, which can be used by a range of stakeholders in Colombia, Peru and Canada.




Published - October 2012
Women's empowerment in global value chains: a framework for business action to advance women's health, rights, and wellbeing
WOMEN, TRADE, MARKET OPPORTUNITIES, GENDER, VALUE CHAINS

This report aims to help unlock business opportunities that advance the health, rights, and wellbeing of women in global value chains. It highlights the benefits of investing in women along the value chain and provides a framework for action and practical guidance for companies to identify and strengthen value-chain investment opportunities that deliver positive returns to business, women, and society. This report is not an exhaustive analysis of the ways companies impact women’s empowerment, or the way women’s empowerment impacts businesses. Rather, it should serve as an inspirational guide to help both new and experienced companies develop effective approaches to women’s empowerment. While the report is designed for a diverse industry audience, some examples and recommendations may be more relevant to consumer products companies with a strong manufacturing supply chain than service companies.

This report builds on a number of studies that emphasize the importance of a holistic and integrated approach to women’s empowerment, including a recent report on building effective women’s economic empowerment strategies published by BSR and the International Center for Research on Women and commissioned by the Oak Foundation.1 It also draws on a review of the latest literature on corporate engagement in women’s empowerment and a series of interviews with companies to test the framework and gather insights on key gaps, opportunities, and solutions. It also incorporates feedback and perspectives from participants at the private sector pre-conference held prior to the global Women Deliver conference in May 2016. For more information, please contact Indiana Vieljeux (ivieljeux@bsr.org).




Published - 2016
How to make a living from music
MUSIC, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARKS

This book is designed to identify and explain the basic income streams that exist in the worldwide music industry for musical authors and performers (and also for phonogram producers, publishers and anyone involved in the music industry). It is intended primarily to reveal to authors and performers the most effective way to generate income from their talent and endeavors, and the best way to achieve fair arrangements for the exploitation of their songwriting and performances without being ripped off. It also explains the importance of good management and provides guidelines on finding a manager and reaching a fair agreement regarding the conditions of an artist/management contract.




Published - 2014
IFPI digital music report 2014: lighting up new markets
MUSIC, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARKS

IFPI’s latest Digital Music Report which gives an excellent overview of how the music industry is investing and adapting in the digital world. Copyright provides the basis of the modern digital music marketplace. Confidence in copyright enables rights holders to license exciting new services that music fans love. This new digital world has brought great new ways to access culture. At the same time, technological change has forced us to ask a fundamental question — what does this mean for copyright and the rights of creators? The answer is clear: while the formats have changed, the music remains. In a world of constant change, music is something of lasting value.




Published - 2014
Investing in music: how music companies discover, nuture and promote talent
MUSIC, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARKS

This report is about the teamwork and the investment that lie behind the success of every recording artist. It is about how the talent of the musician combines with all the skills of the team working with them to produce recordings that inspire audiences around the world. Investment in music cannot be taken for granted. Like the creativity of the artist, it is something that needs to be supported and protected by a secure legal environment. That is why a safe, adequate copyright framework for artists and labels is so crucial. It is more crucial than ever before in today’s digital world, where copyright is fighting for its place against those who would have music and culture disseminated for free or who would erode copyright protections in the name of "copyright reform". Investing in Music is full of information, statistics and case studies about the work of the music industry.




Published - 2014
Opportunities in the CARIFORUM-EC Economic Partnership Agreement for Barbadian entertainers and other cultural services suppliers
MUSIC, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARKS, CARIFORUM, EPA, EU, LOME, COTONOU

This booklet on “Opportunities in the CARIFORUM-EC EPA for Barbadian Entertainers and other Cultural Services Suppliers” is the third in a series of publications intended to provide industry stakeholders and interested members of the general public with a concise but clear picture of the key provisions of the Agreement. The two earlier booklets covered “Tourism & Travel-related Services in the CARIFORUMEC Economic Partnership Agreement” and “The CARIFORUM-EU Economic Partnership Agreement: A Tool for Stimulating Innovation in Barbados”.




Published - October 2010
CBI trade statistics: herbs and spices
SPICES, HERBS, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE, STATISTICS

The data in this document is based on Combined Nomenclature (CN) codes provided by Eurostat. The EU uses the CN classification to categorise goods for international trade statistics. Table 1 mentions the HS codes of spices and herbs used for the statistical analysis in this document. Apart from thyme and bay leaves the codes only concern spices. Therefore the trade statistics in this document apply only to spices unless stated otherwise. This should be taken into account whenever the term spices and herbs is used.




Published - [2015]
CBI Trendmapping: spices and herbs
SPICES, HERBS, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE, STATISTICS

The EU spice and herb market is increasingly characterised by structural change. Growing scarcity on the world market is an important accelerator of this change. Rising prices are increasingly allowing exporters from developing countries (DCs) to invest in and explore the EU market for value added products. The growing awareness of healthier lifestyles and sustainability also provides opportunities in the high-end of the market. In addition, as a result of internationalisation of diets and the large ethnic population in the EU, consumers increasingly adopt eating and cooking habits which were once considered foreign. Exporters from developing countries need to keep an eye on these changes. Adapting their product portfolio and targeting the right market can be essential in the EU.




Published - [2015]
EU buyer requirements for spices and herbs
SPICES, HERBS, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

Buyer requirements can be divided into (1) musts, requirements you must meet in order to enter the market, such as legal requirements, (2) common requirements, which are those most of your competitors have already implemented, in other words, the ones you need to comply with in order to keep up with the market, and (3) niche market requirements for specific segments.




Published - [2015]
The international supply of tertiary education and services trade negotiations: implications for CARICOM
EDUCATION, SERVICES, CARICOM, TRADE NEGOTIATIONS, FTAA

This study has been commissioned by the Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery in order to articulate the current TLE environment in the Caribbean, identify some of the major challenges, and prescribe general recommendations for formulating a regional negotiating strategy in the trade of Education as a service under the framework of the GATS and in the context of ongoing international and regional negotiations, including the FTAA.




Published - October 25, 2004
Cross border higher education for development - Draft
EDUCATION, SERVICES, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

While several OECD countries compete to attract foreign students, some pioneering emerging economies show that an innovative strategy for the import of cross-border education can form a part of a national capacity building strategy. Could this be a suitable model for developing countries to build capacity in tertiary education, and more generally, to accelerate economic development? This chapter argues that this is the case: using cross-border education to build capacity could be an effective strategy, especially when it is accompanied by appropriate policies and regulatory frameworks. Once an overall strategy for capacity building in education is in place, as part of a national capacity building strategy, countries should examine how tertiary (and more broadly post-secondary) education fits into this. A subsequent question concerns whether cross-border tertiary education could play a role in this strategy, and, if so, which. This chapter does not offer definitive answers as these issues are closely connected to the local context of each country. Possible answers will be explored though and an attempt to illustrate the mechanisms that may link cross-border education to capacity building will be made.




Published - [2004]
Building capacity through cross-border tertiary education
EDUCATION, SERVICES, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

This paper explores the possible answers and tries to shed some light on the mechanisms that may link cross-border education to capacity building. The remainder of the paper is organised as follows. The next section defines capacity building and shows that it refers to principles whose validity goes beyond a development assistance context. The third section shows the centrality of education and tertiary education in any capacity building strategy, highlighting a natural privilege of education in capacity building. The fourth section recalls the main arguments explaining why education and tertiary education could lead to economic development and points to some questions and choices a developing country is facing in its education capacity building strategy. The paper then concentrates on the opportunities and challenges of cross-border tertiary education for capacity building in tertiary education. Section 5 shows the reasons why cross-border education could help build capacity in tertiary education; section 6 examines the benefits and drawbacks of the different modes of delivery of cross-border education; section 7 discusses the growth of commercial provision of cross-border  education and its positive and negative impacts in developing countries; finally, section 8 points to some of the policies that may help reap the benefits of cross-border education while minimising its risks.




Published - May 2004
The CARICOM (Caribbean) Single Market and Economy: a strategy for competitiveness in the new economy.,
REGIONAL CO-OPERATION.,ECONOMIC INTEGRATION.,CARICOM.,CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY.,CARIBBEAN.,

This paper explores caribbean integration as expressed in the CSME as well as the new economy to illustrate how the CSME must reflect the nature of that economy to provide for regional competitiveness.,


Published - July, 2002
The current state and future of Caribbean agriculture
CDB, AGRICULTURE, FOOD, FOREIGN TRADE, FAO

The paper evaluates the performance of export agriculture during 1980 to 2004 for the borrowing member countries of the Caribbean Development Bank, excluding the United Kingdom dependent territories, and critically assesses the issue of food dependence and security. It sketches the broad outlines of a new agriculture policy for the Caribbean region, taking into consideration the new challenges (trade liberalisation, increased use of sanitary and phytosanitary barriers, etc.), concerns (food safety, quality, security) and opportunities (rising food prices as a result of increased demand related to global population and income growth, possible diversification into high value products, expansion of niche markets, such as for organic and fair trade products, etc.) presented by the current international environment.




Published - July 2002
The National Biodiversity Strategy and action plan for Barbados
BARBADOS, BIOTECHNOLOGY

This report is the first major document of its kind. It seeks to highlight objectives, strategies and actions necessary for the conservation and sustainable utilization of Barbados’ biological resources. It is envisaged that this document will serve as a repository for local biodiversity information to all citizens, as well as international interests. The NBSAP is also designed to provide the framework for effective management of local biological diversity and to guide future activities of the biodiversity programme in the Ministry. The principal topics examined in the NBSAP are - the local biological diversity status, the issues which affect the livelihood of terrestrial, marine and freshwater biodiversity and a conservation and sustainable management plan. The strategy and action plan takes into consideration mobilization of funding; capacity building; legislation and policy revision and formulation; research, monitoring and mitigation; public education; incentives development; land use planning; in situ and ex situ conservation; biodiversity access and benefit sharing; biosafety and biotechnology transfer; and various sectoral environmental initiatives.

 




Published - July 2002
CBI Competition: Cacao
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

Cacao production is concentrated in West Africa. A few big multinational companies dominate trade. Volatile market prices, diverse EU consumer demands and increasing sustainability and health requirements characterise the market. At  the same time, new production regions are emerging (Vietnam and India) and processing capacity is moving to producing countries (Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana) where local consumption is rising. This brings new dynamics to the competitive environment of cacao trade. Scarcity and a more differentiated/segmented demand from traditional and new consumers are two key drivers that open up opportunities for exporters.




Published - February 2015
EU buyer requirements for coffee, tea and cocoa
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE, EU, TEA, COFFEE, FOOD SAFETY, CERTIFICATION

Buyer requirements for coffee, tea and cocoa (CTC) can be divided into (1) musts, requirements you must meet in order to enter the market, such as legal requirements, (2) common requirements, which are those most of your competitors have already implemented, in other words, the ones you need to comply with in order to keep up with the market, and (3) niche market requirements for specific segments. This paper looks at sustainable certification, food safety certification, corporate social responsibility, extraction solvents, food contamination and food safety and control.




Published - [2015]
The cocoa market situation
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

This document provides an overview of the cocoa market situation from the beginning of the current 2013/2014 season to June 2014. It covers short-term price developments in the cocoa market as well as the most recently available  statistics on cocoa bean production, grindings and stocks.  The document updates the preceding review (document EC/3/2 dated 16 January 2014) which covered market developments that took place within the world cocoa economy in the 2012/2013 cocoa year, as well as projections for supply, demand and prices made by the Secretariat for the current 2013/2014 season through to 2018/2019. It also reviewed movements of cocoa futures prices on both the London and New York markets for 2012/2013, as well as for the October to December 2013 period of the current crop year.




Published - July 24, 2014
CBI trends: cacao
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

The cacao sector is currently confronted with various opportunities and threats. The market is increasingly demanding healthy products, which translates into a rising demand for dark chocolates and chocolates with a sustainability label. At the same time, buyers are becoming more interested in the actual impact of certification and expect additional efforts with respect to issues such as biodiversity conservation and climate adaptation. However, the sector is confronted with rising concerns about future supplies: children of the current farmers no longer believe in a good future in cacao and would rather go to school in the hope of finding employment outside the sector. Other issues being faced by the sector are related poverty, child and forced labour and stricter EU legislation regarding cadmium. So, with this in mind, how can you tap into the opportunities within the EU market business environment? Find out with this document on current and future trends in the cacao sector.




Published - February 2015
CBI field of competition: spices and herbs
SPICES, HERBS, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

The power of buyers in the EU has traditionally been strong but with increasing scarcity and high prices power is slowly being transferred to suppliers in origin. The good market conditions will attract new entrants in the coming years. Although this will change the competitive environment, the fact that global consumption is growing faster than production provides good opportunities for all suppliers that are able to meet the high quality and food safety buyer requirements. Opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries are found particularly at the high end of the market.




Published - [2015]
CBI buyers' black box: herbs and spices
SPICES, HERBS, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

The CBI Buyers' Black Box offers exporters and Business Support Organisations (BSOs) in developing countries (DCs) a clear and up-to-date view of what goes on in the minds of European buyers when they are sourcing from suppliers from  DCs.  This Buyers' Black Box offers sector-specific analysisi and interpretation of teh expectations buyers have of exporters in the herbs and spices sector, against the backdrop of general market trends.  The purpose is to give DC exporters an understanding of how European buyers in their sector think, act and what they focus on, as well as highlighting opportunities and considerations for action.




Published - [2015]
CBI market channels and segments: spices and herbs
SPICES, HERBS, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

Market channels are changing rapidly as a result of developments in the sector. The increased power and development of suppliers, scarcity and the growing popularity of sustainability are the most important drivers of change. This is accompanied by more direct sourcing, cooperation and integration in the trade channel. Small and medium-sized companies (SMEs) in developing countries (DCs) should anticipate these changing market dynamics. There are opportunities for developing your business but players that do not add value can find themselves being cut out of the supply chain.




Published - [2015]
CBI Product Factsheet: cacao in Switzerland
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, SWITZERLAND

Although the global market for chocolate confectionary is still dominated by Western Europe and North America, emerging markets clearly represent the future. The BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) accounted for 55% of global confectionery retail growth in 2011 (KPMG, 2012). Other emerging economies with young populations and an acquisitive middle class are likely to develop a taste for chocolate and, as their disposable incomes grow, will represent important target markets for Switzerland with its large and influential chocolate industry.  This paper looks at buyer and market requirements, food safety and control and provides trade statistics.




Published - March 2015
CBI product factsheet: cocoa and cocoa preparations in Finland
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, FINLAND

Finland has a chocolate consumption level that is well above average: 5.5 kg per person per year. The market for raw materials such as cocoa beans, butter, powder and fat is not large. More often, the chocolate products are sourced from other EU member states such as the Netherlands and Germany. Providing cocoa products to the Finnish consumer is only feasible for suppliers of high quality products who adhere to strict food safety requirements. This factsheet will provide you with the most important specifications of the Finnish market for cocoa products by looking at the four P’s of the marketing mix: product, price, promotion and place.




Published - [2015]
Making intellectual property work for business: a handbook for chambers of commerce and business associations setting up intellectual property services
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, TRADE MARKS, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, SMEs,

Building on their respective work, ICC and WIPO have developed this handbook to help business associations and chambers of commerce establish business support services relating to IP. This handbook is not intended to be a legal guide to explain the nuts and bolts of IPRs, as many excellent legal guides already exist. This handbook endeavours to be a concise and practical guide to help business membership organizations set up their own IP services, illustrated with useful examples and good practices from around the world. It has benefited from the contributions of ICC National Committees, business associations and chambers of commerce worldwide, and therefore reflects real-life practice and experience.




Published - 2011
Negotiating preferential market access: the case of NAFTA
TRADE AGREEMENTS, NAFTA, USA, CANADA, MEXICO

There is a growing interest related to the theoretical analysis of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). Nevertheless, there has been as yet very little empirical research on the topic, in particular, on the negotiating dynamics of these types of agreements. This paper attempts to make a contribution in this direction examining the relationship between the two most important market access instruments in the case of NAFTA negotiations: the preferential tariff phase-outs and the accompanying rules of origin (RoO). The traditional literature has viewed market access negotiations solely in terms of tariff (and non-tariff) negotiations. From an analytical point of view, the role of RoO, that is the rules that are designed to determine the origin of products in international trade, has usually been restricted to a “secondary” or “supportive” function. As such, RoO were seen to assist in the application or implementation of other “primary” instruments. In the case of preferential RoO, they help to determine when a particular good will be granted preferential tariff treatment. Using a newly constructed data set this paper estimates a simultaneous equation model where the endogenous variables are the preferential tariff phase-outs between Mexico and the United States and the RoO under the NAFTA agreement. The empirical findings of this paper support the view that in accordance with recent literature, the NAFTA RoO were used as an independent commercial policy instrument with a “primary” market access function as it is the case with the traditional preferential tariffs.




Published - June 1999
Caribbean Export Annual Report 2009-2010: Expanding Caribbean Business in the Global Marketplace
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

The Caribbean Export Development Agency’s (Caribbean Export) undertook activities in 2009-2010 in line with its mandate to provide strategic guidance to the CARIFORUM region in enhancing competitiveness, promoting trade and export development, improving regional trade and investment relations, and enhancing linkages between CARICOM and the Dominican Republic. Caribbean Export also lead the way in demonstrating self-sustainability and strengthening the brand as the region’s only export development agency.




Published - 2011
Caribbean Export Outlook 2014-2015
MARKETING RESEARCH, CARIFORUM, EXPORT POTENTIAL, CARICOM, AGRO-PROCESSING, SERVICES, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, MUSIC, EPA, EU, BEVERAGES, BRAZIL, GUYANA, TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO, JAMAICA, OECS, TRADE, INVESTMENT, TOURISM

Caribbean Export Outlook is intended to provide this necessary level of information to facilitate the navigation of international trade by our regional exporters, whilst providing potential investors with an insight into the Caribbean business landscape. The Caribbean Export Development Agency hope that this publication will raise awareness of key issues affecting the private sector; provide information for planning firm-level and national-level export strategies; engage stakeholders, whether policy makers or trade promotion organisations, to improve the export environment for firms; and contribute to the discussion on the way forward for regional export development and promotion. This publication will also highlight to the world that we in the Caribbean produce quality goods and services that epitomize the essence of who we are as a people-passionate, diverse and exquisite.




Published - 2015
Caribbean Export Outlook 2016-2017
MARKETING RESEARCH, CARIFORUM, EXPORT POTENTIAL, CARICOM, AGRO-PROCESSING, SERVICES, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, MUSIC, EPA, EU, BEVERAGES, BRAZIL, AFRICA, GERMANY, BRAZIL, CUBA, CHINA, TRADE, INVESTMENT, TOURISM

This publication, now in its second edition, not only highlights the tremendous potential that the Caribbean has in terms of international trade, but also the breadth of opportunities available for international investors looking to capitalise on what is arguably one of the best locations in the world. In the first edition, we highlighted key markets for exporters, including select countries in West Africa, Germany and Brazil, while in this edition our attention focuses on the burgeoning interest in Cuba and China as potential markets.




Published - 2017
The Caribbean Export and GIZ Cooperation: Cooperating to Export
AFRICA, CARIBBEAN, TRADE, COTONOU, EPA, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, SERVICES, EXPORT DEVELOPMENT

The Caribbean Export Development Agency (Caribbean Export) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH have worked together for over 5 years. This collaborative partnership has developed from one of merely financial support to a strong, mutually beneficial relationship where the two agencies work cohesively on regional trade and export development. This project enables the CARIFORUM private sector to be more competitive in penetrating regional and international markets, with a particular focus on the utilisation of the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA). Caribbean Export has recently signed a second agreement/MOU with GIZ that formalises the relationship and enables further collaboration. GIZ brings a particularly valuable expertise to this initiative. Their practices draw on a wealth of regional and technical expertise as well as tried and tested management know-how. Their services span many fields: economic development and employment promotion; governance and democracy; security, reconstruction, peace building and civil conflict transformation; food security, health and basic education; environmental protection, resource conservation and climate change mitigation. This publication highlights some of the successful projects that Caribbean Export and GIZ have worked on together over the past 5 years.




Published - 2015
The Development and Implementation of National Investment Promotion Strategies: A step by step guide
INVESTMENT, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT, CARICOM

This publication is the first in a series of advisory documents on investment promotion that is being published by Caribbean Export. The document serves as a practical guide on how to develop and implement national investment promotion strategies and is intended to benefit practitioners in investment promotion agencies in the Caribbean.  Caribbean Export’s Investment Promotion Advisory Series seeks to focus attention on the issues related to investment promotion and facilitation, including but not limited to image building, marketing and promotions, research and policy advocacy and the business climate.




Published - 2015
Caribbean Export and EPA implementation in the Caribbean services sector (2011-2014)
SERVICES, TRADE IN SERVICES, CARIBBEAN, EPA,CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, SPECIALISED TORUISM, PROFESSIONAL SERVICES

As the regional agency, leading the implementation the 10th European Development Fund (EDF) Regional Private Sector Programme (RPSDP), from March 2011 - December 2015 across CARIFORUM, the Caribbean Export Development Agency (Caribbean Export) undertook a range of programme-based activities, which has implications for the application of the EPA regionally, given the 10th EDF’s overall objective of contributing to the gradual integration of CARIFORUM countries into the world economy. This handbook provides a summary of activities undertaken by Caribbean Export specifically development work in the services sector, under the component of the Agency’s 10th EDF work programme, which speaks to identifying and strengthening the region’s high potential niche sectors to benefit from EPA provisions. The creative industries, professional services, and specialised tourism are highlighted as target sectors in this arrangement, and have been recipients of programming aimed at providing increased access to finance, delivering training and certification, strengthening regional networks, and facilitating the participation of firms in regional and international missions.




Published - 2015
Assessment of Framework and Opportunities for Enhancing Export Trade between Guyana, Suriname and Brazil
BRAZIL, GUYANA, SURINAME, BUSINESS PPORTUNITIES, TRADE, EXPORT, FOREIGN TRADE

This report details an immediate (i.e. within two years) set of actions that are geared at addressing the underwhelming performance of Guyana and Suriname based firms in the markets of the Troika (Guyana, Suriname and Brazil are jointly referred to as The Troika). The report details actions that may be feasible for the client to pursue, and others which are more clearly the responsibility of the Governments of Guyana and Suriname.




Published - March 2014
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analysis Report: Arts and Craft
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, ARTS AND CRAFT, HANDICRAFTS, CARIFORUM

This value chain’s analysis includes the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. On this basis, this report considers the value chains using a two‐fold approach: analysis of the supply (CARIFORUM) side, and analysis of the demand (EU) side. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); joint‐ventures and e‐commerce platforms ‐ both Business‐to‐Consumer (B2C) and Business‐to‐Business (B2B).




Published - July 08, 2015
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analyses Final Report
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CARIFORUM

The creative chain consists of an initial creative idea, which is usually combined with other inputs to produce a culture good or service, through a series of interlinked stages between their production and use. A culture product must be created, produced, possibly manufactured or reproduced, and then distributed before it reaches, or is used by, a consumer. This chain of activity includes a number of distinct steps, usually occurring in business establishments. However, in order to collect harmonised and, when possible, comparable data, a simple value chain as a framework of analysis (linear value chain) was used. Nevertheless, we consider the local ecosystem as a key factor influencing CCIs’ supply chain and their performance. The value chain’s analysis will therefore include the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); joint‐ventures and e‐commerce platforms ‐ both Business‐to‐Consumer (B2C) and Business‐to‐Business (B2B).




Published - August 31, 2015
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analysis Report: Painting (Visual Arts)
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CARIFORUM, VISUAL ARTS, PAINTINGS

The value chain’s analysis includes the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. On this basis, this report considers the value chains using a twofold approach: analysis of the supply (CARIFORUM) side, and analysis of the demand (EU) side. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); jointventures and ecommerce platforms both BusinesstoConsumer (B2C) and BusinesstoBusiness (B2B).




Published - July 8, 2015
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analysis Report: Jewellery
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CARIFORUM, JEWELLERY

The value chain’s analysis includes the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. On this basis, this report considers the value chains using a twofold approach: analysis of the supply (CARIFORUM) side, and analysis of the demand (EU) side. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); jointventures and ecommerce platforms both BusinesstoConsumer (B2C) and BusinesstoBusiness (B2B).




Published - July 26, 2015
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analysis Report: Music
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CARIFORUM, MUSIC

The value chain’s analysis includes the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. On this basis, this report considers the value chains using a twofold approach: analysis of the supply (CARIFORUM) side, and analysis of the demand (EU) side. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); jointventures and ecommerce platforms both BusinesstoConsumer (B2C) and BusinesstoBusiness (B2B).




Published - July 8, 2015
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analysis Report: Fashion
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CARIFORUM, FASHION

The value chain’s analysis includes the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. On this basis, this report considers the value chains using a twofold approach: analysis of the supply (CARIFORUM) side, and analysis of the demand (EU) side. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); jointventures and ecommerce platforms both BusinesstoConsumer (B2C) and BusinesstoBusiness (B2B).




Published - July 8, 2015
Creating Opportunities: 2013 Annual Report of The Caribbean Export Development Agency
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

The Caribbean Export Development Agency carries out numerous programme-based activities designed to enhance the competitiveness of regional small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), promote trade and development among the CARIFORUM, promote stronger trade and investment relations among CARIFORUM and the French Caribbean and Outermost Regions (FCORs) and the European Union (EU) Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) in the Caribbean, as well as promote stronger trade and investment cooperation between the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the Dominican Republic. The 2013 annual report provides a break down of the activities for the year.




Published - 2014
Laying the Foundation for Success: 2014 Annual Report of The Caribbean Export Development Agency
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

Caribbean Export’s work among regional SMEs is centred on six strategic areas: investment promotion, access to finance, export development, export promotion, business advocacy and sustainability. With each year of implementation, the Agency has seen increased participation in programme-based interventions from not only SMEs, but also from our partner agencies in private sector development, which are the business support organisations and public sector agencies across CARIFORUM. This annual report provides an overview of the activities undertaken in 2014.




Published - 2015
Building on Success: 2015 Annual Report of The Caribbean Export Development Agency
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

During the period January-December 2015, The Caribbean Export Development Agency centred its development results within six priority areas: investment promotion, access to finance, export development, export promotion, business advocacy and institutional sustainability, and with each year of EDF implementation, Caribbean Export has seen increased engagement, and positive results from participation in programme-based interventions from SMEs, BSOs, and the public sector.  This 2015 annual report provides a synopsis of the actvities undertaken.




Published - 2016
Caribbean Export Annual Report, 2008
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

The Caribbean Export Development Agency’s implementation strategy is to integrate the project activities into its work plan through the Contribution Agreement now signed between the European Commission (EC) and Caribbean Export.  This is a major step forward for the relationship between the EC and Caribbean Export, since it allows the Agency to use its own procedures and rules, which have been audited and approved by the EC.  The Annual Report 2008 continues to focus on the work undertaken and the results achieved within its four broad objectives, during the year. The body of the report is preceded by our Vision and Mission statements and is followed by a short section looking ahead to 2009.




Published - 2009
Vision into Action: 2012 Annual Report of The Caribbean Export Development Agency
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

In 2012 Caribbean Export Development Agency (Caribbean Export) took the decision to focus programme implementation around seven key zones, which reflect the Agency’s approach to regional development, namely investment  promotion, access to finance, research and market intelligence, trade agreements: advocacy and awareness, export promotion and development, fostering partnerships, and Caribbean Export’s capacity building. This Annual Report outlines the activities undertaken within each zone.




Published - 2013
Doing business with the Dominican Republic
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Dominican Republic. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Dominican Republic.




Published - December 2010
Doing business with Venezuela
VENEZUELA, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Venezuela. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Venezuela.




Published - August 2008
The state of food insecurity in the World: The multiple dimensions of food security
FAO.,FOOD.,

The 2013 report goes beyond measuring chronic food deprivation. It presents a broader suite of indicators that aims to capture the multidimensional nature of food insecurity, its determinants and outcomes. This suite, compiled for every country, allows a more nuanced picture of their food security status, guiding policy-makers in the design and implementation of targeted and effective policy measures that can contribute to the eradication of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition. Drawing on the suite of indicators, the report also examines the diverse experiences of six countries. These experiences show that other forms of malnutrition can sometimes be more significant than undernourishment. In such circumstances, policy interventions to improve food security need to include nutrition-sensitive interventions in agriculture and the food system as a whole, as well as in public health and education, especially of women. Nutrition-focused social protection may need to target the most vulnerable, including pregnant women, adolescent girls and children.

Policies aimed at enhancing agricultural productivity and increasing food availability, especially when smallholders are targeted, can achieve hunger reduction even where poverty is widespread. When they are combined with social protection and other measures that increase the incomes of poor families, they can have an even more positive effect and spur rural development, by creating vibrant markets and employment opportunities, resulting in equitable economic growth. Not surprisingly, the specific country experiences suggest that high poverty levels generally go hand in hand with high levels of undernourishment. But undernourishment can also be more severe than poverty, especially when both are at high levels. As food is one of the most incomeresponsive of all basic necessities, higher incomes can therefore expedite reductions in undernourishment.

 

 




Published - 2013
Exporting to Canada - A Handbook. Tenth Edition, 2013
CANADA, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES,I NTERNATIONAL TRADE, IMPORT REGULATIONS

This handbook provides an overview of the Canadian economy and market, current trends in Canadian imports and opportunities created by these trends. Contains information on importation of how to market products in Canada. Includes names and addresses of agencies and organisations of importance to potential exporters to Canada.




Published - 2013
External public debt of CARICOM Member States 1990-2000
CARICOM, STATISTICAL DATA

Provides data on external public debt at both the regional level and details at the level of Member States. Presents data highlights on the overall debt situation of CARICOM excluding Barbados and Suriname.




Published - June 2002
Strengthening aid effectiveness: new approaches to Canada's international assistance program
CANADA, DEVELOPMENT AID

The Aid Effectiveness paper explicitly re-confirms the overarching 1995 mandate for Canadian ODA. But it also strongly affirms the centrality of poverty reduction to development cooperation for CIDA and other donors. Many of the approaches suggested in the paper respond to the complexities of achieving this goal. At the same time, poverty reduction is a modest goal for CIDA, understating Canada’s public commitments at UN Conferences to work on a specific agenda for the eradication of poverty, such as the 1995 World Summit for Social Development or the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development. The CIDA paper, however, also makes explicit an additional rationale for aid, that is “Canada’s enlightened self-interests” that may deflect Canadian aid from the poorest countries and people. CCIC members have witnessed growing poverty, inequality deteriorating human rights and democratic governance in many parts of the developing world during the past decade. World Bank structural adjustment policies, long supported by the donor community, have been engines of marginalization and increased poverty. A critique of these policies and the responsibilities of donors for “mistaken” strategies in the past receive little attention in the Aid Effectiveness paper. In CCIC’s view strategies for poverty eradication should define Canada’s “enlightened self-interests” in our relations with developing countries.




Published - June 2001
Application of the rules of origin
RULES OF ORIGIN, CARICOM

Application of the rules of origin presented by Norris Breeedy, CARICOM Secretariat, June, 2009




Published - June 2009
Doing business with the Cayman Islands
CAYMAN ISLANDS, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Cayman Islands. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Cayman Islands.




Published - June 2007
Natural resources in Latin America and the Caribbean: beyond booms and busts?
LATIN AMERICA, CARIBBEAN, NATURAL RESOURCES, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Policy makers in many countries in the Latin American and Caribbean region have found it challenging to determine how to treat natural resource commodity production and how to manage the recurrent cycles of booms and busts. Natural Resources in Latin America and the Caribbean: Beyond Booms and Busts? addresses the major concerns associated with commodity dependence, summarizing the state of the art in existing literature and filling in the knowledge gaps with new analysis. The report finds that some commonly accepted negative effects of dependence on natural resources are largely myths, while some are realities. But the authors find that all the effects can be managed, and they provide practical advice on how to do so. Issues covered include long-term fiscal growth, fiscal volatility, institutional impacts, and environmental and social effects. The report analyzes the implications for the region’s development and policies. Natural Resources in Latin America and the Caribbean: Beyond Booms and Busts? will be of interest to policy makers, academics,and analysts, as well as others interested in the economics of commodity markets and their role in economic development.




Published - June 2010
Globalization and the challenge for developing countries
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, GLOBALIZATION, FREE TRADE AREA, TRADE LIBERALIZATION

The paper argues that there are several key interrelated elements to globalization and that the future gains will derive from the degree to which countries are willing to embrace them together rather than in a sequenced fashion. Identifies some aspects of globalization which presents opportuntiese for erveloping countries and discusses appropriate policy actions.




Published - June 2001
Doing business with Saint Lucia
SAINT LUCIA, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Saint Lucia. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Saint Lucia.




Published - June 2007
Report on the production of trade statistics in the Caribbean region
CARIBBEAN, STATISTICAL DATA

The study suggests that the best source for obtaining trade data for the regional databases is the national statistics office in each country. The statistics offices collect data for the entire country’s trade and carries out extensive checking on the accuracy of the data.




Published - June 2001
Trade issues of concern to civil society
TRADE, FOREIGN TRADE, FOREIGN INVESTMENT, TRADE AGREEMENTS, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT

This document examines issues of concern to civil society as they relate to trade including investment, services, intellectual property rights environment, dispute settlement and asymmetrical treatment in trade agreements.




Published - June 2005
The impact of Free Trade Agreements in the application of Dominican Law 173
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, TRADE AGREEMENTS

The distribution and representation of foreign-made goods and services in the Dominican Republic is governed by Dominican Law 173 of 6 April 1966, as amended, on protection of local agents and distributors of merchandise ("Law 173"). This law has been greatly discussed and evaluated, since it grants extraordinary protection to the local agents and distributors, in case of unilateral termination by licensor. The salient features of Law 173 are the following: (a) is a so-called "public order" statute, i.e., its provisions cannot be superseded by private contract.




Published - June 2007
Shaping future GATS rules for trade in services
TRADE AGREEMENTS, GATS, SERVICES

This paper suggests possible improvements in the rules of the GATS agreement, in the specific commitments made by countries and in the negotiating methodology. Recommends improvements that can be made in the current round of service negotiations in the specific commitments made by countries and in the negotiating methodology.




Published - April 2001
The role the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) plays within the Caribbean Common Market Community (CARICOM) and in the Caribbean's relationship with the world economy
OECS, CARICOM, REGIONAL INTEGRATION

This paper was prepared exclusively for the Annual Conference of the International Studies Association Latin America and the Caribbean Regionalish in the global Economic Crisis II, New Orleans, USA, February 19, 2010.




Published - February 2010
Technical Barriers to Trade Part 2: Basic principles of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade
NONTARIFF BARRIERS, TRADE BARRIERS, WTO

The WTO Agreement on TBT encourages countries to use international standards in formulating technical regulations and voluntary standards, and in trade. It also requires that countries use guidelines and recommendations developed by international standardization organizations as the basis for their conformity assessment procedures.




Published - October 06, 2010
Directory of Associations of Specialized Importers in selected countries
OECD, EXPORT PROMOTION, IMPORT PROMOTION, EUROPE, JAPAN

Lists associations in OECD countries involved in the import/export trade. Gives addresses, product imported, level of membership and associated publications. Includes separate alphabetical product list which includes SITC Rev 2 codes and country information. For further information visit http://www.intracen.org/itc/trade-support/importers-associations/.




Published - 2017
The Economic Partnership Agreement between CARIFORUM and the European Union and the building of a post-colonial economy in the Caribbean
EPA, CARIFORUM, EU, TRADE AGREEMENTS, CARIBBEAN

Presentation at a public lecture at the Errol Barrow Centre for Creative Imagination, cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, March 11, 2008.




Published - March 11, 2008
Jamaica's National Export Strategy, 2015-2019
JAMAICA, EXPORT DEVELOPMENT, TRADE DEVELOPMENT, AGRO-PROCESSING, FILM AND ANIMATION, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES, MANUFACTURING, MINING, EXPORT FINANCING, TRADE FACILITATION, MARKET ACCESS, STANDARDS, QUALITY MANAGEMENT, CAPACITY BUILDING, PACKAGING, LABELLING

The aim of the National Export Strategy 2015-2019 is to help guide the development of priority sectors’ towards the achievement of the national economic goals of Jamaica. A number of methodologies and tools were employed to achieve the objectives of the NES development process. One of the cornerstone methodologies employed was extensive stakeholder consultation. A number of stakeholders were consulted prior to and during the NES development process through interviews, one-on-one meetings and focus group sessions. In addition, a Validation Workshop was held on January 21st and 22nd 2015, where stakeholders had the opportunity to pro-actively engage in the action planning process. Subsequently, stakeholders have been given an opportunity to review the draft National Export Strategy document and provide comments and feedback, which were taken into consideration in finalising the strategy.

A key methodology was visioning. The vision for the various priority sectors and crosscutting areas, as well as the overall vision for export development in Jamaica were crafted based on consultations with stakeholders and review of other strategic initiatives and policies. Some of the specific visions were taken directly from the National Export Strategy 2010-2013. Others were adapted from the Vision 2030 Jamaica – National Development Plan. All vision statements however, were reviewed by stakeholders and confirmed at the Validation Workshop. Stakeholders were also given the opportunity to offer feedback during the strategy finalisation process. An overview of the vision for the National Export Strategy 2015-2019 is presented in the figure below.




Published - August 2015
Technical assistance to Caribbean Export Development Agency for research on market structure of the handicraft sector in the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, and assessment of potential venues of CGCS 2009
TRADE FAIRS, HANDICRAFT, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, PUERTO RICO

The study is divided in 2 chapters. The first one refers to the market structure in the Dominican Republic and the analysis of the possible venues to host CGCS 2009; and the second one refers to the characteristics of the handcraft market in Puerto Rico. In the first chapter we will see the definitions of the terms that we will use in the study and in the present document, in order to continue with the quantitative and qualitative result thrown by the market investigation made in Dominican Republic. Chapter 2 will address the differential characteristics of the Puerto Rican market. Hard copy only.




Published - September- October 2008
Agreement establishing the free trade area between the CARICOM Community and the Dominican Republic
TRADE, CARICOM, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, TRADE AGREEMENTS

The fundamental objective of the Agreement shall be to strengthen the commercial and economic relations between the Parties through: the establishment of a Free Trade Area between the Parties consistent with the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organisation (the WTO);

  1. the promotion and expansion of the sale of goods originating in the territories of the Parties through, Interalia, free access to the markets of the Parties, elimination of non-tariff barriers to trade, and the establishment of a system of Rules of Origin, Customs Co-operation and the Harmonisation of Technical, Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary Procedures;
  2. the progressive liberalisation of trade in services;
  3. the liberalisation of the movement of capital between the Parties, and the promotion and protection of investments aimed at taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the markets of the Parties, and the strengthening of their competitiveness;
  4. the promotion of the active participation of private economic agents with a view to deepening and broadening the economic relations between the Parties, including the promotion and establishment of joint ventures;
  5. the promotion and development of cooperative activities in the following areas: agriculture, mining, industry, construction, tourism, transportation, telecommunications, banking, insurance, capital markets, professional services and science and technology;
  6. the discouragement of anti-competitive business practices between and within the Parties.



Published - [2005]
Explanatory document for the Agreement on Trade, Economic and Technical Cooperation between CARICOM and the Republic of Colombia
CARICOM, COLOMBIA, TRADE AGREEMENTS, TRADE REGULATIONS, FREE ZONES, SHIPPING, ECONOMIC CONDITIONS, PACKAGING, LABELLING, STANDARDS

The fundamental objective of this Agreement shall be to strengthen the trade and economic relations and technical cooperation between the Parties through:

(a) the promotion and expansion of the sale of goods originating in CARICOM and Colombia with particular emphasis on exports from CARICOM States in the early stages of the implementation of this Agreement;

(b) the promotion and protection of investments aimed at taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the markets of the Parties and strengthening their competitiveness in the international market;

(c) the facilitation of the creation and operation of regional joint ventures;

(d) the development of technical and scientific cooperation activities which may be agreed upon between the Parties;

(e) the promotion of private sector activities, including business exchanges between the Parties.




Published - [2004]
Guide to US food labeling
USA, FOOD, LABELLING

The Guide to US Food Labelling Law provides guidance on how to comply with the requirements of the Nutrition Labelling and Education Act of 1990. It explains the law and provides advice on avoiding enforcement actions by regulatory agencies. It includes information on the history of food labelling laws, the role of government agencies and the rules applying to dietary supplement labelling. For further information visit http://www.thompson.com/public/offerpage.jsp?promo=FOOD.




Published - [2010]
Trade policy and Caribbean development: prospects and options
CARIBBEAN, TRADE POLICY, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

The research was conducted on five countries and with data collected on a number of sectors. The countries selected were Barbados, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. This selection sought to anticipate differences in the effects of different patterns of development in the larger countries vis-à-vis a possible divergent experience in the Windward and Leeward Islands.




Published - [2000]
The basics of exporting
USA, GUIDE, EXPORT REGULATIONS

International trade may appear to be a complex undertaking requiring extensive Resources, a large and expensive marketing and export department, a significant volume of the product to be marketed, and fluency in the language of the targeted countries. This is not the case. The goal of this handbook is to lay these myths to rest and open the world of exporting to companies that have previously abandoned the idea and new-to-export-companies. We will begin by exploring common misconceptions. The remainder of the handbook expands upon important issues for a successful export business.




Published - [2002]
WIPO patent information services for developing countries
TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, PATENTS, WIPO, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Provides information on WIPO Patent Information Services for developing countries (WPIS), their usefulness and how they contribute to research and development activities and industrial development projects of developing countries.




Published - [2002]
Harmful tax competition: an emerging global issue
OECD, NON TARIFF BARRIERS


Published - 1998
Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act: impact on U.S. industries and consumers and beneficiary countries. 21st Report, 2011-12
USA, GSP, CARIBBEAN, TRADE AGREEMENTS, INTERNATIONAL TRADE

This report is the 21st in a series of reports prepared by the U.S. International Trade Commission (Commission) under section 215 of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) of 1983 (19 U.S.C. 2704). Section 215 requires the Commission to submit to Congress and the President biennial reports regarding the economic impact of the CBERA program on U.S. industries and consumers, and on the economy of the beneficiary countries. As part of its report the Commission is required, first, to include an assessment of the actual effect, during the period covered by the report, of the program on the U.S. economy generally as well as on specific domestic industries which produce articles that are like or directly competitive with articles being imported into the United States from beneficiary countries. Second, the Commission is required to provide an assessment of the probable future effect that the program will have on the U.S. economy generally, as well as on domestic industries, before the provisions of the program terminate. This report covers the period 2011–12.




Published - December 2011
Caribbean region investment climate study - Final report
BELIZE, GRENADA, ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES, ST. KITTS AND NEVIS, ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA, ST. LUCIA, DOMINICA, OECS, INVESTMENT CLIMATE, POWER ELECTRICITY, WATER AND SANITATION, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, TRANSPORTATION, LAND, LABOUR, CAPITAL

This study has captured a great deal of information on the investment climate in each of the 7 countries covered.  Unfortunately, uniform data were not available across all countries, making it difficult to carry out quantitative regional comparisons to establish competitiveness in all the areas surveyed.  Where comparable data are available, which is mainly in infrastructure, comparisons on key indicators have been made if useful.  In all areas of the investment climate examined, the qualitative information gathered helped supplement or stand in for the numerical data and using the totality of information available allows for some useful analysis.




Published - [2011]
Report on the legal regime of free trade in services
CARICOM, WTO, CARIBBEAN, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, FREE TRADE AREA, SERVICES

This report examines the international law relating to trade in services as it relates to the member states of the Caribbean Community in the new era of the WTO and GATS. Discusses the extent to which requirements of the new law needs in principle to be met by legislation at the national level and examines the aspects of the law of Commonwealth Caribbean countries which pose, or are capable of posing obstacles to free trade in services. Hard copy only.




Published - [1998]
Role of Intellectual Property in Innovation and New Product Development
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, WIPO, PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Technological innovation may be classified in several ways: product vs. process, radical (basic or fundamental) vs. incremental (improvement), and disruptive vs. sustaining (sequential and/or complementary). Other important types of (non-technological) innovations that do not result from scientific and/or technological R&D, but are often crucial for profitably marketing the products and services resulting from the investment made in R&D are: marketing innovation, institutional innovation, and complementary innovation.  In this article, however, the focus is on technological innovations. Nowadays, it is generally accepted that in a knowledge-driven, competitive business environment, technological innovation (hereafter, for the sake of simplicity, simply called ‘innovation’) is a principal determinant of successful firm performance. But differences of opinion persist amongst economists and policymakers about the exact role of intellectual property (IP) in relation to innovation. On the one hand, in theory, the IP system is considered to be absolutely necessary “to encourage creative intellectual endeavor in the public interest, and on the other, some observers believe that, in practice, the IP system hinders competition to the extent that it is often seen to be playing a negative role in innovation.  Hence the need for a systematic and periodic study and review of the actual use by businesses of the tools of the IP system so that economists are able to provide empirical, evidence-based guidance to policymakers to adapt the IP system so that it continues to serve the conflicting private and public interest in spurring further innovation and its wide diffusion in the shortest possible time. This article, however, does not deal with these otherwise important aspects.




Published - [2009]
Doing business with Canada
CANADA, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Canada. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Canada.




Published - November 2007
A Comparative Guide to the Chile- United States Free Trade Agreement and the Dominican Republic- Central America- United States Free Trade Agreement
TRADE AGREEMENT, CHILE, USA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, CENTRAL AMERICA

This document consists of two main parts: a compartive study of the provisions in the Chile-US free trade agreement and the Dominican Republic-Central America- US Free trade Agreement; and comprative matrix of the legal text of the Agreements.




Published - January 2005
Small economies in the face of globalisation
GLOBALISATION, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, CARIBBEAN

Explores the relevance of economies of scale, less diversification and macroeconomic policy autonomy, both at the conceptual and empirical level focusing on the Caribbean economies. Section I takes a look at the relationship between country size, specialisation and growth. Section II explores the effects of vulnerability to external shocks and limited macro-economic autonomy. Section III examines implications for national, regional and global policies.




Published - May 2002
Trade policy review Saint Lucia - Report by the Government
SAINT LUCIA, TRADE POLICY

Please visit  http://www.sice.oas.org/ctyindex/LCA/LCANatlDocs_e.asp to download this document and other related documents on Saint Lucia.




Published - October 01, 2007
Trade policy review Grenada - Report by the Government
GRENADA, TRADE POLICY, WTO

Please visit http://www.sice.oas.org/ctyindex/GRD/GRDNatlDocs_e.asp to download this document and other related information on Grenada.




Published - October 01, 2007
Doing business with Dominica
DOMINICA, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Dominica. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Dominica.




Published - May 2007
Doing business with Cuba
CUBA,TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Cuba.  Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country.  Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Cuba.




Published - May 2007
Doing business with Antigua and Barbuda
ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Antigua and Barbuda. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Antigua and Barbuda.




Published - May 2007

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