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Canada making a difference in the world: a policy statement on strengthening aid effectiveness
CANADA, DEVELOPMENT AID

This document outlines the international context for our agenda to strengthen aid effectiveness and the principles that will guide our efforts. These include providing increased attention to the leadership role of developing countries, promoting greater coordination with other donors, and fostering greater coherence in Canada’s policies that affect our developing-country partners. In keeping with the principles, this document identifies the framework within which decisions will be made on the geographical and sectoral allocation of CIDA’s resources. It also identifies changes in tied aid policies designed to reinforce aid effectiveness and the steps we are taking to strengthen CIDA as an institution.




Published - September 2002
Caribbean economic performance report, 2014
CARIBBEAN, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

The outlook for 2014 is slow growth in most of the individual economies. IMF projections show eight countries growing faster in 2014 than in 2013 but no faster than 2.7 per cent.  In the countries projected to grow less rapidly in 2014, namely Guyana, Haiti and Suriname, the growth rate is expected to be in the region of four per cent.  Inflation rates are projected to increase in ten of the 14 countries, with inflation abating in only Barbados, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago.  The external balance is expected to improve in eight countries and to deteriorate in five others.  Government finances are projected to remain problematic with the primary balance expected to deteriorate in five countries and with the gross debt ratio increasing in 12 countries, including countries which are already highly indebted.




Published - June 2014
Trade information dissemination: options for consulting, disseminating and exchanging trade information
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Reviews and discuss the various modalities in which trade information can be distributed to target end-users. Includes examples illustrating the various option at hand.  Hard copy document only.




Published - September 2001
Guide to sources of information on importers
DIRECTORY, COMPANY DATA

Includes profiles of 152 sources of information that can be used to locate importers.  Hard copy document only.




Published - August, 2002
Report of the workshop on boosting SME development and competitiveness in the Caribbean
SME, SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, CARIBBEAN, JAMAICA, SURINAME, TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

The workshop was the culmination of country studies that were carried out under an Italian Government-funded project to assess the policies, institutions and instruments for dynamic Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) development competitiveness in Jamaica, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. The aim was to use the lessons learned from the three countries to inform policy and practice in the other member countries of the Caribbean Development and Cooperation Committee (CDCC).




Published - August, 2009
Expanding Caribbean business in the global marketplace: our strategic approach
CARIBBEAN, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, MANAGEMENT, CARICOM

This document represents the first step in the process to develop an Agency Strategic Plan. This document is a position paper, a snapshot of the Agency’s priorities and direction. It seeks to inform stakeholders – member states, CARICOM Secretariat, CARIFORUM Directorate, OECS Secretariat, our exporter and investor clients, national promotional and business support organisations, international and regional development partners and the general public – about the work of Caribbean Export and our current priorities and directions.




Published - August, 2009
Trade Policy Review. Report by United States
USA, TRADE POLICY

Please see WTO website http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp_rep_e.htm#bycountry.




Published - August, 2010
Doing business with Trinidad and Tobago
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Trinidad and Tobago. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Trinidad and Tobago.




Published - August 2007
CARICOM report No. 2
CARICOM, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, CSME REGIONAL COOPERATION, CSME

This report offers a detailed assessment of recent progress achieved in the three main areas of the integration process: economic integration, foreign policy coordination and functional cooperation. It also analyses the determinants of integration - what drives it, what slows it down - in an effort to generate a better understanding of the challenges and prospects of the Caribbean integration process.




Published - August, 2005
Caribbean regional action plan on freight logistics, maritime transport and trade facilitation
MARITIME TRANSPORT, CARIBBEAN, FOREIGN TRADE, TRANSPORT, TRADE FACILITATION, FREIGHT LOGISTICS, SHIPPING, COMMERCE, FREIGHTAGE

The Caribbean’s location at the crossroads of global container shipping routes gives the region excellent maritime connectivity that could translate into significant commercial opportunities. Given its heavy dependence on trade, Caribbean authorities are increasingly vested in improving the efficiency of supply chains and addressing issues related to maritime transport and logistics. In the context of the Panama Canal expansion, it is of the utmost important that steps be taken immediately to strengthen the Caribbean’s position in global maritime trade routes. The Caribbean Regional Action Plan on Freight Logistics, Maritime Transport and Trade Facilitation reviews the status of trade and transport infrastructure in the Caribbean Basin, with particular emphasis on CARIFORUM countries. The study highlights the main trends in global and regional trade flows in the region, estimates the impact of these trends on the shipping industry and selected Caribbean Basin ports, and proposes a regional Action Plan for taking advantage of new commercial opportunities.




Published - December 2014
Private Sector Assessment of Saint Lucia
SAINT LUCIA, PRIVATE SECTOR, ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

The Private Sector Assessment Report (PSAR) provides a comprehensive overview of the private sector in St. Lucia. It draws on both primary and secondary data sources. Primary data analyses were derived from interviews with key stakeholders from the domestic private and public sectors as well as interviews with regional and international agencies. A listing of the main stakeholders in each country is documented in the original country reports. Secondary data wereutilized to describe the state of the country at both the micro and macro levels. In addition to these specific elements of the research, the development of the PSAR was assisted by consultations organized under the Caribbean Growth Forum2 (CGF) banner. 

The PSAR analyses the characteristics and primary components of the private sector, key challenges to private-sector development, emerging sectors, and finally presents an action plan for the promotionof private-sector development. The PSAR suggests that the government should focus on improvement and utilization of technology and on strengthening the labour force.




Published - 2013
Taking advantage of the Economic Partnership Agreement: A handbook for the Caribbean tourism sector
TOURISM, EPA, TRADE AGREEMENTS, ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT

This hand-book is designed to put the right information into the hands of our tourism industry to make sure we take full advantage of the EPA. Written in as straightforward and accessible a style as possible, this hand-book summarises the provisions in the Agreement which will affect tourism. It provides a country-by country breakdown of the Caribbean’s EPA commitments to reduce tariffs on European goods and to allow European firms to provide services in our region, and it gives a full analysis of the development funding which is available and how to access it.  If as a result of exploring this handbook you have specific or detailed enquiries about the EPA, CHTA is additionally able to provide through specialists a practical advice service by telephone or email. More detailed information about this service and full access to an on-line version of the report are available from our website www.caribbeanhotelassociation.com.




Published - August 26, 2010
Understanding the WTO
WTO, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, COMPETITION POLICY, TRADE POLICY, TRADE AGREEMENTS, TRADE DISPUTES, TRADE NEGOTIATIONS, TRAINING, TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

The first step is to talk. Essentially, the WTO is a place where member governments go, to try to sort out the trade problems they face with each other. At its heart are WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations. But the WTO is not just about liberalizing trade, and in some circumstances its rules support maintaining trade barriers — for example to protect consumers, prevent the spread of disease or protect the environment.  For further information visit www.wto.org.




Published - 2015
Odyssey in international markets: an assessment of the effectiveness of export promotion in Latin America and the Caribbean
FOREIGN TRADE, LATIN AMERICA, CARIBBEAN, EXPORTS, EXPORT TRADING COMPANIES, TRADE PROMOTION

Odyssey in International Markets is the second report of the Integration and Trade Sector of the Inter-American Development Bank aimed at helping countries in Latin America and the Caribbean identify obstacles that stand in the way of more effective integration into the world economy and design policies to reduce these impediments to trade. The report first makes a comprehensive analysis of export promotion organizations in some three dozen countries and regions. Second, it provides robust evaluations, using state-of-the-art econometrics and original datasets, of the impacts that policies have had on export outcomes of countries and firms. The report is supported by rigorous background studies that are available as IDB Working Papers through the Bank´s website. Based on the findings of this report, it appears that export promotion seems to have been effective in facilitating export expansion, especially along the extensive margin (i.e., diversification). At the same time, the report points to areas where further research would produce deeper insights into its relative merits.




Published - 2010
Study on regulatory regimes in selected professional services in EU member states: Final report
ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT, EPA, TRADE AGREEMENTS, CARIFORUM, EU; PROFESSIONAL SERVICES, ACCOUNTANCY, ARCHITECTURE, ENGINEERING, MANAGEMENT CONSULTANCY, TOUR OPERATIONS, TOURIST GUIDING

The objective of this report is to set out the opportunities that arise from this Agreement; to provide trade data; and outline the regulatory framework for providing selected professional services in 8 Member States of the EU and to assist the CARIFORUM countries and the relevant professional associations within them in making the necessary adjustments and informing negotiations so as to maximize the benefits envisaged by the EPA.




Published - August 2009
Credit risks and monetary policy within Caribbean economies
MONETARY POLICY, MACROPRUDENTIAL POLICY, INTEREST RATES, CAPITAL CONTROLS AND FLOWS, DSGE; ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

The paper addresses the issue on the interaction between monetary and macroprudential policies in small open economies for different exchange rate regimes. The need for macroprudential policy arises from exacerbated macroeconomic fluctuations due to frictions in the financial system as in Bernanke, Gertler and Gilchrist (1999). Understanding these dynamics in developing nations has been even more important after the most recent events of the Great Recession. Policy makers within the scrutinized economies will see the exact magnitude of shocks caused by changes in financial frictions, monetary and macroprudential policy. Exchange rate considerations are also brought to the fore, by assessing the effects of these policies on two emerging economies from the Caribbean with differing monetary policy frameworks. Despite differences between flexible and fear of floating exchange rate regimes, macroprudential policies implementation help mitigate the effects of credit supply shocks affecting regional economies.




Published - May 2017
What are the fiscal limits for the developing economies of Central America and the Caribbean?
FISCAL LIMITS, LAFFER CURVES, DEBT, DEVELOPING ECONOMIES; ECONOMIC CONDITIONS, CENTRAL AMERICA, CARIBBEAN

This study uses simulations of state-dependent distributions of fiscal limits for 18 economies in Central America and the Caribbean to better understand governments’ ability to service their debt, arising from endogenously determined dynamic Laffer curves. Using a small, open economy model to simulate macroeconomic fundamentals and fiscal policy interactions, the empirical findings produced results not previous available for these economies, showing varying and wider distributions of fiscal limits for the open economy model subject to terms-of-trade and flexible exchange rate shocks. This indicates that terms-of-trade and exchange rate volatility impacted the ability of national economies to service their debt. It is therefore prudent that policymakers and central bankers consider models that incorporate the use of trade and exchange rate volatility as a robust way of more accurately determining fiscal limits, which are a critical component in understanding governments’ ability to service their debt.




Published - May 2017
The WTO agreements series: technical barriers to trade
TRADE AGREEMENTS, TECHNICAL BARRIERS TO TRADE, WTO, GATT, URUGUAY ROUND

This booklet discusses the text of the TBT Agreement as it appears in the Final Act of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. This agreement and others contained in the Final Act, along with the amended General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT 1994), are part of the treaty which established the WTO. The WTO superseded the GATT as the umbrella organization for international trade.

The WTO Secretariat has prepared this booklet to assist public understanding of the TBT Agreement. The booklet first presents the basic structure of WTO agreements. It then provides a brief overview of the background, purpose and scope of the TBT Agreement, as well as the types of measures it covers. It sets out the key principles of the Agreement, and discusses how these have been addressed in recent disputes brought under the TBT Agreement. It next focuses on transparency, a cornerstone of the TBT Agreement. It also describes the mandate, role and work of the TBT Committee, and considers how TBT-related matters have arisen in the Doha Round negotiations. A separate section addresses a number of frequently asked questions about the Agreement. The booklet also contains the full text of the TBT Agreement, decisions and recommendations by the TBT Committee, a list of observers in the TBT Committee and an example of a typical TBT notification.




Published - 2014
De-risking in the Barbados context
DE-RISKING, FINANCIAL SYSTEMS, CORRESPONDENT BANKS, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL CENTERS, BARBADOS

De-risking has the potential to develop into a threat to Barbados posing a challenge to the country's continued development and economic stability if left unchecked. Early indications are that the de-risking phenomenon may have already begun to erode Barbados’ competitive position as a leading IFC in the Caribbean region. Any sustained loss of IBC business for Barbados will undoubtedly lower government tax receipts, negatively impact employment, and could impact the level of FX availability in the domestic financial system.




Published - February 2017
Universal public health insurance, adult status and labour supply in Jamaica
JAMAICA, FREE PUBLIC HEALTH, HEALTH STATUS, LABOUR SUPPLY, HEALTH AND SOCIAL SERVICES

This policy brief answers three main questions with respect to the no-user-fee policy adopted across public health centres in Jamaica: (i) Has the policy improved health status among working age adults? (ii) Has the policy influenced labour market dynamics? (iii) Has the policy had differential effects by age groups? Evidence suggests that the policy improved overall health status, as the likelihood of suffering illnesses associated with inability to carry out normal activities decreased by 28.6 percent. In addition, the number of days where people were unable to perform normal activities due to illnesses suffered within the previous four weeks decreased by 34 percent. Regarding labour market dynamics, no effects are found on the likelihood of being employed or contributing to the National Insurance Scheme. However, consistent with a reduced number of days lost due to illnesses, we find a positive effect of 2.15 additional weekly labour hours. Finally, we find that all of these positive effects are concentrated within adults in the 40– 64 year-old age range. Overall, these effects suggest that the policy added a yearly average of US$PPP 26.6 million worth of net real production to the Jamaican economy during the period 2008–12.




Published - April 2017
Trinidad and Tobago Manufacturers' Association Membership Directory 2016
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO, MANUFACTURERS, DIRECTORY

This directory provides a list of the membership of the Trinidad and Tobago Manufacturers' Association (TTMA).




Published - 2016
Connecting to the world through regional value chains: partnership opportunities in coconut value chain for the small Caribbean economies
COCONUT, VALUE CHAINS, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, GUYANA, BELIZE, SURINAME, SAINT LUCIA, ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES, TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO, CARIBBEAN

This report was prepared on behalf of the International Trade Center. It draws on primary information from field interviews in Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Guyana during July-August 2015 and phone interviews with stakeholders in Belize, Suriname, St Lucia, St Vincent and Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago during September-November 2015. The aftermath of Tropical Storm Erika in Dominica in August 2015 did not permit primary research in the country.  The coconut global value chain (GVC) is at a critical juncture, characterized by a rapidly growing demand in global markets and a stagnant supply base in danger of collapse in origin countries.  Since the early 2000s, breakthroughs in processing technology and consumer awareness about the health benefits of coconut water have remarkably expanded markets beyond the tropics.  Coconut value chains in the Caribbean region have mirrored the positive global market trends.  Informed by the ‘multi-level perspective’, the report presents detailed analysis and recommendations for the Caribbean countries.




Published - June 2016
Are oil and gas smothering the private sector in Trinidad and Tobago?
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO, PRIVATE SECTOR, MACROECONOMICS, PERFORMANCE OF FIRMS, FINANCE, HUMAN CAPITAL, CRIME, SECURITY, FOREIGN TRADE, INFRASTRUCTURE, COMPETITION, INNOVATION

This study examines factors relating to the profile of firms, macroeconomic conditions, the business climate, and laments of businesspersons as possible constraints to performance. The findings reveal that an unfavorable macroeconomic environment and business climate affects all firms in the private sector. With respect to the former, the main issue relates to an overvalued exchange rate—a negative externality of being hydrocarbon-dependent. An unfavorable business climate reflects government policies, regulations, and public services that hinder rather than promote a dynamic, export-oriented and innovative private sector. Moreover, the profile of private sector firms—an important determinant of performance—is unfavourable in terms of age, size, legal form, and trade orientation. Estimates from this study suggests limited access to financing, and labour and crime constraints are the three main microeconomic factors that weigh negatively on the sales growth of firms.




Published - 2016
World Trade Report 2016: Levelling the trading field for SMEs
TRADE, SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

This report documents SME participation in today’s fast-evolving trading system and contributes to a better understanding of the determinants and consequences of this participation, with the aim of adding to the debate on the role of SMEs in making growth more inclusive. This introductory section consists of three parts. First, it defines SMEs for the purpose of this report and discusses why they matter in their domestic economies. Second, it explains what this report is about, why it is timely and how it contributes to the debate on the role of SMEs. Finally it presents the structure of the report and highlights some important findings.




Published - 2016
Assessment of port performance and port connectivity study in Belize, Central America and the Dominican Republic
SHIPPING, CENTRAL AMERICA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, BELIZE, BUSINESS LOGISTICS, FREIGHT, MANAGEMENT, FREIGHTAGE, TRANSPORT

This study focuses on identifying the basic logistics capabilities in Belize, Central America and the Dominican Republic. It concentrates on the ports and sea network, taking into consideration intermodal networks involving both land and sea components together with the major performance drivers of intermodal networks including geography, infrastructure, regulations and trade requirements.




Published - March 2013
Successful technology licencing
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, TRADE MARKS, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, TECHNOLOGY, LICENSING, JOINT VENTURES

This text focuses on licensing as a means of exploiting intellectual property (IP). Before examining the licensing process it is important to consider the context in which licensing may occur. IP, as an asset to a business, may be exploited in many ways. A business may acquire IP for defensive purposes – using the IP to prevent copying of the businesses products or service or to assert in response to an IP challenge from another party. IP may also be used offensively – aggressively asserting it to frustrate competitors, obtain market share, control geographic markets, or generate revenue. Many businesses use their IP assets as leverage in negotiations for business deals, such as, for example, joint research and development arrangements, acquisitions or mergers, or strategic collaborations. Sophisticated businesses use IP for many different business purposes; basic licensing as discussed in this text is only one way to exploit IP.




Published - 2015
Global Value Chain Development Report 2017: Measuring and analyzing the impact of GVCs on economic development
VALUE CHAIN, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, AFRICA, LATIN AMERICA

The Global Value Chains Development Report is a joint publication of the World Bank Group, the Institute of Developing Economies (IDE–JETRO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Research Center of Global Value Chains (RCGVC-UIBE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), based on joint research efforts to better understand the ongoing development and evolution of global value chains and their implications for economic development.  This first report draws contributions from 16 background papers presented and discussed at the conference “Making Global Value Chains Work for Economic Development and Shared Prosperity” in Beijing during March 17–18, 2016, organized by the RCGVC and the China Development Research Foundation. Drafts of the eight chapters of the report were presented and discussed at the second Authors’ Conference in Washington, DC, during November 28–29, 2016, organized by the World Bank.




Published - 2017
WTO dispute settlement: One-page case summaries 1995-2016
WTO, DISPUTE SETTLEMENT

This updated edition of WTO Dispute Settlement: One-Page Case Summaries has been prepared by the Legal Affairs Division of the WTO with assistance from the Rules Division and the Appellate Body Secretariat. This new edition covers all panel and Appellate Body reports adopted by the WTO Dispute Settlement Body as of 31 December 2016.

This publication summarizes on a single page the core facts and substantive findings contained in the adopted panel and, where applicable, Appellate Body reports for each decided case. Where relevant, the publication also summarizes key findings on significant procedural matters. The additional case summaries provided in this 2017 edition serve to further illustrate the active recourse of WTO members to resolve their disputes through the WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding. I’m sure it will continue to be seen as an essential reference for all students, practitioners and researchers of the WTO system.




Published - 2017
20 years of Information Technology Agreement: boosting trade, innovation and digital connectivity
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, TRADE, DIGITAL ECONOMY

This publication celebrates the ITA's twentieth anniversary,reviews the impact of the ITA and its expansion, and shares insights on the role of information technology for development, including its contribution to the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. As WTO members explore paths to advance the multilateral trading system in the years ahead, the ITA experience, as documented here, may provide some useful lessons.




Published - 2017
Investing in skills for inclusive trade
TRADE FACILITATION, WTO, SMEs, POLICY

the report focuses on the role of skills in explaining trade patterns and performance, as well as on their role in mediating the effects of trade on economic efficiency and distribution. The objective of the report is to consider how coherence  between trade and skills development policies can be ensured by shedding light on the linkages between trade and skills, with a view to understanding when and how skills  development policies can be used by governments to maximize the gains from trade and to ensure that these gains are shared broadly. The report combines findings from the economic literature – both theoretical and empirical work – and lessons from the ILO’s STED Programme. Economic theory provides a number of interesting insights regarding the effects of skills endowments on trade patterns and performance. It also helps us to understand the various channels through which trade affects the demand for skills; and it clearly spells out how changes in the demand for skills interact with the supply of skills in determining the impact of globalization on labour market outcomes. The empirical literature provides evidence on the various channels through which trade affects the demand for skills and shows that their importance varies with countries’ levels of economic development. More recent studies also focus on the role of particular skills in shaping the impact of globalization on individual workers.




Published - 2017
Trade and food standards
FAO, FOOD, FOOD STANDARDS, TRADE, WTO

This publication focuses on the close relationship between food standards and trade. It describes the system governing the development and implementation of food standards. It further highlights the importance of rules, the harmonization of regulations on the basis of international standards, and the need for countries to be prepared in order to take advantage of the system. The text offers insights for decision-makers in national governments and other stakeholders dealing with trade, standards, regulations and food policy. It explains that by bringing together trade, food safety and food standards, building awareness, domestic capacity and promoting collaboration, there can be tangible public health and economic benefits. Part I describes the system of Codex standards and WTO agreements. Part II examines the dynamics of the system in action and the importance of preparation and participation in Codex and the work of the SPS and TBT Committees by countries at all levels of development. The final section explores drivers of change likely to affect food standards and trade in the future.




Published - 2017
Aid for Trade at a glance 2017: Promoting trade, inclusiveness and connectivity for sustainable development
AID FOR TRADE, TRADE FACILITATION, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

This is the sixth edition of the Aid for Trade at a Glance publication. Since 2007, successive editions of this flagship publication have shed light on the steps being taken by developing country governments and their development partners to leverage trade for development. The 2017 edition adds further weight to the already substantial body of evidence highlighting the effectiveness of aid for trade. It focuses on how and why trade connectivity is critical for inclusiveness, sustainable growth and poverty reduction. It is intended to inform both practice and policy regarding aid for trade’s contribution to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

The publication sheds light on various examples of how the private sector is helping MSMEs, women, and rural populations to connect to the global economy. The private sector is vital to bridging the digital divide and more should be done to solicit their views on policy choices and public investment, and promote public-private collaboration for boosting connectivity. Moving ahead, both developing countries and their development partners expect a scaling up of digital connectivity and e-commerce programmes. Findings show that the better the physical and digital connectivity, the more it contributes to market access, financial inclusion, women’s economic empowerment and poverty reduction. These impacts get amplified when the public and private sector work together to build the institutional and physical capacity to help the poor connect and compete.




Published - 2017
WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement: A business guide for developing countries
TRADE FACILITATION, WTO, SMES, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

The guide explaining the significance of the WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation and the reasons why it was proposed aims at helping business communities in developing countries understand the obligations that these countries have taken on or will do so in the future; gives an overview of the main provisions of the agreement; explains how it is intended to ease border controls for business, and how business can still influence the way that governments implement the obligations and specific commitments they have undertaken in reaching the Agreement; includes bibliographical references.




Published - 2013
10 things the WTO can do
TRADE FACILITATION, WTO, SMES, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

The world is complex. The World Trade Organization is complex. This booklet is brief, but it tries to reflect the complex and dynamic nature of trade and the WTO’s trade rules. It highlights benefits of the trading system, but it doesn’t claim that everything is perfect. Were it a perfect system, there would be no need for further negotiations and for the system to evolve and reform continually. Nor does this booklet claim that everyone agrees about everything in the WTO. That’s one of the most important reasons for having the system: it’s a forum for countries to thrash out their differences on trade issues. That said, there are a number of reasons why we’re better off with the system than without it.




Published - 2014
From Export Promotion to Internationalization : The role of trade promotion organizations in the evolving global economy - Conference Report, 3-5 November 2014, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
TRADE PROMOTION ORGANIZATION, EXPORT PROMOTION, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, INVESTMENT, TRADE FACILITATION, EXPORT DIVERSIFICATION, VALUE CHAINS

Proceedings of 2014 Trade Promotion Organizations (TPO) Network World Conference and Awards held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, on 3 - 5 November 2014, addressing the theme ‘From export promotion to internationalization’, reflects the debates, discussions and key messages of the conference and showcases the winners of the 2014 TPO Network Awards; reviews the recent trend in the business support environment to merge trade and investment activities; discusses the benefits and opportunities for TPOs and their beneficiaries such as trade facilitation, diversifying exports towards emerging markets and integrating SMEs into value chains.




Published - 2015
Trade Promotion Organizations Directory 2015
TRADE PROMOTION ORGANIZATION, EXPORT PROMOTION, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, INVESTMENT, TRADE FACILITATION, DIRECTORY

Developing linkages between TPOs is an important part of knowledge sharing and the development of expertise. This 2015 Directory of Trade Promotion Organizations provides an opportunity for this connection and is a tool to build a strong network of TPOs worldwide.




Published - 2015
World Trade Statistical Review 2016
TRADE STATISTICS, WTO, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, STATISTICAL DATA

“World Trade Statistical Review” provides a detailed analysis of the latest developments in world trade. It will be produced on an annual basis and replaces “International Trade Statistics”, the WTO’s former annual statistical publication.  All data used in this report, as well as additional charts and tables not included, can be downloaded from the WTO web site at www.wto.org/statistics.




Published - 2016
NAFTA at 20: North America's Free-Trade Area and its impact on agriculture
TRADE AGREEMENTS, NAFTA, USA, CANADA, MEXICO, NORTH AMERICA FREE TRADE AGREEMENT, FREE TRADE AGREEMENT, CUSTA, TRADE, INVESTMENT, SANITARY, PHYTOSANITARY

This report examines the integration of North America’s agricultural and food markets as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), implemented in 1994. NAFTA has had a profound effect on many aspects of North American agriculture over the past two decades. With a few exceptions, intraregional agricultural trade is now completely free of tariff and quota restrictions, and the agricultural sectors of the member countries—Canada, Mexico, and the United States—have become far more integrated, as is evidenced by rising trade in a wider range of agricultural products, substantial levels of cross-border investment, and important changes in consumption and production. The report also examines recent disputes among its constituents and identifies opportunities for further reforms of mutual benefit to the member countries, with particular attention devoted to the NAFTA governments’ efforts to seek deeper regional integration through such means as regulatory cooperation and modifying the agreement’s rules of origin and broader access to markets in other parts of the world through the negotiation of additional free-trade agreements.




Published - February 2015
WTO Annual Report 2014
WTO, ANNUAL REPORT, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, COMPETITION POLICY, TRADE POLICY

The 2014 Annual Report is split into three main sections. The first contains a message from the WTO Director-General. The second section provides a brief overview of 2013 and some background information on the WTO, while the third has more in-depth information.




Published - 2014
World Intellectual Property report: Breakthrough innovation and economic growth
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, TRADE MARKS, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, SMEs

This report endeavors to provide an analytical input into that debate. It explores the channels through which innovation promotes growth, and the ecosystems in which innovation flourishes. In so doing, the report pays special attention to the role of the intellectual property (IP) system, which at its heart seeks to support innovative activity. In addition to reviewing historical patterns of growth and conceptualizing the linkages between innovation and growth, the report’s main analytical contribution consists of six case studies of breakthrough innovations. In particular, it focuses on three historical innovations and three innovations which currently hold breakthrough potential (see table). Through case studies, one can take account of the different nature of innovative breakthroughs and the evolving context in which innovation takes place. In addition, even though many conclusions are specific to the six cases and may not be generalizable, the commonalities and differences presented by the cases offer food for thought on which policy approaches work best in alternative circumstances.




Published - 2015
Strategies for a successful Caribbean music industry in the global market. Branding intellectual property: The case of Jamaica music
MUSIC, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARKS, CARIFORUM, JAMAICA

Presentation by Andrea Davis providing common issues, SWOT analysis and recommended strategiesfor the Jamaican music industry.




Published - [2015]
The ecomonic contribution of the core UK music industry
MUSIC, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARKS, UNITED KINGDOM, UK

This report significantly improves upon official measurement of music’s economic contribution. It presents a robust definition of the core music industry, informed by a clear rationale. It identifies all forms of revenue that are captured within this definition and measures the GVA (Gross Value Added), export and employment directly contributed by these activities.




Published - [2012]
Survey on consumer satisfaction with the retail distribution of goods. Product market report: fresh fruit and vegetables
FRUIT, VEGETABLES, EROPEAN UNION, MARKETING RESEARCH

The objective of this report is to present the main findings of the survey for the market for Fresh fruit and vegetables. It details consumers’ satisfaction with various aspects of this market. The first level of analysis aims to describe consumers’ feelings about the market and about elements that constitute their retailer’s services as well as the problems encountered when purchasing its products. For each question asked in the questionnaire, a chart presents the results at EU and country level. When relevant, we also highlight the differences by distribution channel and socio-demographic profile of the respondent. The main indicator used in the analysis (which is widely admitted amongst the research experts’ community) is the percentage of satisfied and dissatisfied consumers, based on the scores given on a scale from 1 to 10. “Satisfied” are those who gave a satisfaction score of 8 to 10; “dissatisfied” are those who gave a score of 1 to 4. For the clarity of the analysis, we do not show the neutral consumers on the charts or those who could not give an answer to the question (“don’t know”). This is why the figures shown in most of the charts do not add up to 100%. If there are particularly large proportions of Don't know answers this is however mentioned in the text. The second level of analysis presented in this report shows the interaction of key satisfaction indicators so as to explain consumers’ overall satisfaction. For more information, the reader will find the full results of the survey as well as a methodological note, country reports and an overall report on DG SANCO web site:http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/strategy/cons_satisfaction_en.htm




Published - June 2009
Economic Partnership Agreements: drivers for development
ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT, TRADE AGREEMENTS, FTAA, WTO, ACP, CARIBBEAN, CAPACITY BUILDING, TRADE POLICY, TRADE LIBERALIZATION, CSME, EPA

This booklet provides answers to the many questions received on the Economic Partnership Agreements by Louis Mitchell since he took office as European Commissioner for Development policy and relations with the African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries.




Published - [2015]
CBI market survey: the (organic) coffee, tea and cocoa market in the EU
COCOA, TEA, COFFEE, EU, MARKETING RESEARCH, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

This CBI market survey profiles the (organic) coffee, tea and cocoa market in the EU. The (organic) coffee, tea and cocoa market in individual EU countries is discussed in separate market surveys. These market surveys as well as EU export marketing guidelines for (organic) coffee, tea and cocoa can be downloaded from http://www.cbi.nl/marketinfo.




Published - May 2007
CBI market survey: the jewellery market in the EU
JEWELLERY, EU, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

This survey profiles the EU market for precious jewellery and costume jewellery. The precious jewellery market includes jewellery pieces made of gold, platinum or silver all of which can be in plain form or with (semi-) precious gemstones, diamonds or pearls. The costume jewellery market includes imitation jewellery pieces of base metal plain or with semi-precious stones, glass, beads or crystals. It also includes imitation jewellery of any other material, cuff links and hair accessories. This survey excludes second-hand jewellery and luxury goods such as gold and silver smith’s ware (tableware, toilet ware, smokers’ requisites etc.) and watches.




Published - September, 2008
Grenada nutmeg sector development strategy 2010-2015
NUTMEG, GRENADA, STRATEGY

The Nutmeg Sector Strategy has been developed to address the revitalization of this important Sector. The methodology for developing the Strategy has been participatory, using the Value Chain Approach with inputs from over 70 sector stakeholders drawn from the private and public sectors. This partnership is a part of the E.U. funded All ACP Agriculture Commodities Programme (AAACP) with the leadership from the Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Forestry and Fisheries and the International Trade Centre (I.T.C.). Grenada is the second largest world producer of nutmegs and mace after Indonesia, and is known for high quality nutmegs and as the only producer of the world’s No.1 mace. Traditionally, nutmeg and mace have been exported mainly to Europe to be used primarily in meat preservation and sausage making. In addition to its values in the culinary field, there is now strong evidence to support its usage in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. Though recognised for its superior product, Grenada lags behind in market research and development and its potential is limited because of the lack of an appropriate Market Information System (M.I.S.) to facilitate the gathering, processing and storage of domestic and international trade data so vital for informed decision-making. This Strategy is designed to provide opportunities and potential for the Sector – its stakeholders and beneficiaries. It is  anticipated that its implementation would generally enhance Grenada’s economic development and would specifically contribute in a meaningful way to the rejuvenation of the rural economy.




Published - July 2010
EU market survey 2005: fresh fruit and vegetables
FRUIT, VEGETABLES, EROPEAN UNION, MARKETING RESEARCH

This EU market survey profiles the EU market for fresh fruit and vegetables and consists of two parts. Part A provides market information for he major national markets within the EU and providing statistical market information on consumption, production and trade, and information on trade structure. The selected markets are: The Netherlands, Germany, France, the UK, Italy, Spain and Belgium. Part A also covers the requirements of the EU market in terms of product quality, packaging, labelling and social, health & safety and environmental standards. After having read Part A, it is important for an exporter to analyse the target markets, sales channels and potential customers in order to formulate marketing and product strategies. Part B subsequently aims to assist (potential) exporters in developing countries in their export-decision-making process. Exporters are advised to consult CBI’s Export Planner, a guide that shows how to set up export activities systematically, before using the marketing guidelines in this publication.




Published - April 2005
Cocoa market update
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

Cultivation of cocoa is a delicate process, as the trees are susceptible to changing weather patterns, diseases, and insects. Unlike larger, industrialized agribusinesses, the vast majority of cocoa comes from small, family-run farms, which often rely on outdated farming practices and have limited organizational leverage. Steadily increasing demand from worldwide consumers encourages a number of global efforts and funds committed to support and improve cocoa farm sustainability. This cocoa market updated looks at production, consumption, value chain and price of cocoa.




Published - April 01, 2014
Profiling Caribbean Women Entrepreneurs: Business Environment, Sectoral Constraints and Programming Lessons
WOMEN, CARIBBEAN, CARICOM, TRADE, GENDER

The report "Profiling Caribbean Women Entrepreneurs: Business Environment, Sectoral Constraints and Programming Lessons" is available at http://www.infodev.org/EPIC.  This report seeks to redress the current paucity of information on growth-oriented women entre­preneurs in the Caribbean region by drawing on various data sources to estimate their numbers and sectoral focus. At the same time, it develops an understanding of the main issues facing women in their businesses and their future growth potential.

Three main concepts are used throughout the report: entrepreneurship, innovation, and growth-orientation. Entrepreneurship is used in its widest sense in relation to the support environment and the process of starting and running businesses. Innovation is considered the launching of new or improved products, services, processes, or business models to drive differentiation and/or efficiency for enhanced competitiveness. Growth orientation relates to individual drive, ambition, and potential to grow a business, while growth potential relates to the potential of the sector to grow.




Published - June 2015
Exploring Firm-Level Innovation and Productivity in Developing Countries: The Perspective of Caribbean Small States
ACCESS TO FINANCE, CARIBBEAN, COMPETITION, ELECTRICITY, FIRM PERFORMANCE, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT, GENDER, INNOVATION, PRODUCTIVITY, PUBLIC POLICY, WOMEN

Using micro-level data, this publication provides new and insightful findings on the determinants of firm innovation and productivity in a region with scarce empirical research: the Caribbean. Until very recently, the Caribbean did not have internationally comparable, statistically relevant data at the firm level to perform empirical analysis of what drives firm performance and innovation. The chapters that make up this publication use two datasets to examine the impact of different variables related to innovation and firm performance that are of interest to regional policymakers. The chapters are part of the “Cutting Edge Research on Productivity, Technology and Innovation” (RGCC1066) research project, which was coordinated by the Competitiveness and Innovation Division of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). As a collection, the chapters seek to unearth the relationship between different variables of interest and their impact on innovation, productivity, and/or performance at the firm level.  In turn, the variables of interest have been chosen to align with major areas of concern for policymakers in the Caribbean.




Published - 2017
Trade and gender: issues and interactions
GENDER, WOMEN, TRADE, MEN, TRADE LIBERALIZATION; ECONOMICS OF GENDER

Increased global integration affects groups of individuals differently. This paper examines ways in which greater integration through trade impacts women and men differently, and ensuing implications for growth. The paper finds that trade creates jobs for women in export-oriented sectors. Jobs that bring more household resources under women’s control lead to greater investments in the health and education of future generations. Although women are more than ever formally employed, differences in wages earned by men and women persist in all countries. Women also have less access to productive resources, time and, particularly in many developing countries, education. Professional women continue to encounter discrimination in hiring and promotion, including in OECD countries.  The impact of trade liberalisation on women is important not only because they represent over half of any population, but also because they face constraints which make them less able to benefit from liberalisation. Once different impacts are ascertained, well-designed policy responses may aid women in taking advantage of greater openness to trade.  All Trade Policy Working Papers are now available through the OECD’s Internet website at: http://www.oecd.org/trade.




Published - 2005
Gender and Free Trade Agreements: Best Practices and Policy Guidance
WOMEN, TRADE, MARKET OPPORTUNITIES, GENDER, TRADE LIBERALIZATION, COLOMBIA, PERU, CANADA, TRADE AGREEMENTS

This paper identifies best practices and provides policy guidance on how public policy can promote the participation of women entrepreneurs, women producers and women-led export firms in accessing market opportunities through trade agreements. It has been prepared for regional workshops of the "Gender Equity and Canadian Free Trade Agreements (FTAs)" sub-project of the Canada-Americas Trade Related Technical Assistance Program (CATRTA).

Specifically, the paper:

  • Provides a brief overview of the evidence on gender and trade liberalization (section 2);
  • Identifies key obstacles that reduce the participation of women entrepreneurs, women producers and women-led export firms in accessing the market opportunities of free trade agreements (section 3);
  • Sets out global, regional and bilateral, best practices in promoting the participation of women entrepreneurs, women producers and women-led export firms in accessing the market opportunities of free trade agreements (section 4);
  • Provides policy guidance to stakeholders in Peru and Colombia to further this agenda (section 5).

The paper is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the literature on gender and trade liberalization, but rather a pragmatic reference guide, which can be used by a range of stakeholders in Colombia, Peru and Canada.




Published - October 2012
Women's empowerment in global value chains: a framework for business action to advance women's health, rights, and wellbeing
WOMEN, TRADE, MARKET OPPORTUNITIES, GENDER, VALUE CHAINS

This report aims to help unlock business opportunities that advance the health, rights, and wellbeing of women in global value chains. It highlights the benefits of investing in women along the value chain and provides a framework for action and practical guidance for companies to identify and strengthen value-chain investment opportunities that deliver positive returns to business, women, and society. This report is not an exhaustive analysis of the ways companies impact women’s empowerment, or the way women’s empowerment impacts businesses. Rather, it should serve as an inspirational guide to help both new and experienced companies develop effective approaches to women’s empowerment. While the report is designed for a diverse industry audience, some examples and recommendations may be more relevant to consumer products companies with a strong manufacturing supply chain than service companies.

This report builds on a number of studies that emphasize the importance of a holistic and integrated approach to women’s empowerment, including a recent report on building effective women’s economic empowerment strategies published by BSR and the International Center for Research on Women and commissioned by the Oak Foundation.1 It also draws on a review of the latest literature on corporate engagement in women’s empowerment and a series of interviews with companies to test the framework and gather insights on key gaps, opportunities, and solutions. It also incorporates feedback and perspectives from participants at the private sector pre-conference held prior to the global Women Deliver conference in May 2016. For more information, please contact Indiana Vieljeux (ivieljeux@bsr.org).




Published - 2016
How to make a living from music
MUSIC, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARKS

This book is designed to identify and explain the basic income streams that exist in the worldwide music industry for musical authors and performers (and also for phonogram producers, publishers and anyone involved in the music industry). It is intended primarily to reveal to authors and performers the most effective way to generate income from their talent and endeavors, and the best way to achieve fair arrangements for the exploitation of their songwriting and performances without being ripped off. It also explains the importance of good management and provides guidelines on finding a manager and reaching a fair agreement regarding the conditions of an artist/management contract.




Published - 2014
IFPI digital music report 2014: lighting up new markets
MUSIC, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARKS

IFPI’s latest Digital Music Report which gives an excellent overview of how the music industry is investing and adapting in the digital world. Copyright provides the basis of the modern digital music marketplace. Confidence in copyright enables rights holders to license exciting new services that music fans love. This new digital world has brought great new ways to access culture. At the same time, technological change has forced us to ask a fundamental question — what does this mean for copyright and the rights of creators? The answer is clear: while the formats have changed, the music remains. In a world of constant change, music is something of lasting value.




Published - 2014
Investing in music: how music companies discover, nuture and promote talent
MUSIC, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARKS

This report is about the teamwork and the investment that lie behind the success of every recording artist. It is about how the talent of the musician combines with all the skills of the team working with them to produce recordings that inspire audiences around the world. Investment in music cannot be taken for granted. Like the creativity of the artist, it is something that needs to be supported and protected by a secure legal environment. That is why a safe, adequate copyright framework for artists and labels is so crucial. It is more crucial than ever before in today’s digital world, where copyright is fighting for its place against those who would have music and culture disseminated for free or who would erode copyright protections in the name of "copyright reform". Investing in Music is full of information, statistics and case studies about the work of the music industry.




Published - 2014
Opportunities in the CARIFORUM-EC Economic Partnership Agreement for Barbadian entertainers and other cultural services suppliers
MUSIC, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CULTURAL INDUSTRIES, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARKS, CARIFORUM, EPA, EU, LOME, COTONOU

This booklet on “Opportunities in the CARIFORUM-EC EPA for Barbadian Entertainers and other Cultural Services Suppliers” is the third in a series of publications intended to provide industry stakeholders and interested members of the general public with a concise but clear picture of the key provisions of the Agreement. The two earlier booklets covered “Tourism & Travel-related Services in the CARIFORUMEC Economic Partnership Agreement” and “The CARIFORUM-EU Economic Partnership Agreement: A Tool for Stimulating Innovation in Barbados”.




Published - October 2010
CBI trade statistics: herbs and spices
SPICES, HERBS, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE, STATISTICS

The data in this document is based on Combined Nomenclature (CN) codes provided by Eurostat. The EU uses the CN classification to categorise goods for international trade statistics. Table 1 mentions the HS codes of spices and herbs used for the statistical analysis in this document. Apart from thyme and bay leaves the codes only concern spices. Therefore the trade statistics in this document apply only to spices unless stated otherwise. This should be taken into account whenever the term spices and herbs is used.




Published - [2015]
CBI Trendmapping: spices and herbs
SPICES, HERBS, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE, STATISTICS

The EU spice and herb market is increasingly characterised by structural change. Growing scarcity on the world market is an important accelerator of this change. Rising prices are increasingly allowing exporters from developing countries (DCs) to invest in and explore the EU market for value added products. The growing awareness of healthier lifestyles and sustainability also provides opportunities in the high-end of the market. In addition, as a result of internationalisation of diets and the large ethnic population in the EU, consumers increasingly adopt eating and cooking habits which were once considered foreign. Exporters from developing countries need to keep an eye on these changes. Adapting their product portfolio and targeting the right market can be essential in the EU.




Published - [2015]
EU buyer requirements for spices and herbs
SPICES, HERBS, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

Buyer requirements can be divided into (1) musts, requirements you must meet in order to enter the market, such as legal requirements, (2) common requirements, which are those most of your competitors have already implemented, in other words, the ones you need to comply with in order to keep up with the market, and (3) niche market requirements for specific segments.




Published - [2015]
The international supply of tertiary education and services trade negotiations: implications for CARICOM
EDUCATION, SERVICES, CARICOM, TRADE NEGOTIATIONS, FTAA

This study has been commissioned by the Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery in order to articulate the current TLE environment in the Caribbean, identify some of the major challenges, and prescribe general recommendations for formulating a regional negotiating strategy in the trade of Education as a service under the framework of the GATS and in the context of ongoing international and regional negotiations, including the FTAA.




Published - October 25, 2004
Cross border higher education for development - Draft
EDUCATION, SERVICES, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

While several OECD countries compete to attract foreign students, some pioneering emerging economies show that an innovative strategy for the import of cross-border education can form a part of a national capacity building strategy. Could this be a suitable model for developing countries to build capacity in tertiary education, and more generally, to accelerate economic development? This chapter argues that this is the case: using cross-border education to build capacity could be an effective strategy, especially when it is accompanied by appropriate policies and regulatory frameworks. Once an overall strategy for capacity building in education is in place, as part of a national capacity building strategy, countries should examine how tertiary (and more broadly post-secondary) education fits into this. A subsequent question concerns whether cross-border tertiary education could play a role in this strategy, and, if so, which. This chapter does not offer definitive answers as these issues are closely connected to the local context of each country. Possible answers will be explored though and an attempt to illustrate the mechanisms that may link cross-border education to capacity building will be made.




Published - [2004]
Building capacity through cross-border tertiary education
EDUCATION, SERVICES, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

This paper explores the possible answers and tries to shed some light on the mechanisms that may link cross-border education to capacity building. The remainder of the paper is organised as follows. The next section defines capacity building and shows that it refers to principles whose validity goes beyond a development assistance context. The third section shows the centrality of education and tertiary education in any capacity building strategy, highlighting a natural privilege of education in capacity building. The fourth section recalls the main arguments explaining why education and tertiary education could lead to economic development and points to some questions and choices a developing country is facing in its education capacity building strategy. The paper then concentrates on the opportunities and challenges of cross-border tertiary education for capacity building in tertiary education. Section 5 shows the reasons why cross-border education could help build capacity in tertiary education; section 6 examines the benefits and drawbacks of the different modes of delivery of cross-border education; section 7 discusses the growth of commercial provision of cross-border  education and its positive and negative impacts in developing countries; finally, section 8 points to some of the policies that may help reap the benefits of cross-border education while minimising its risks.




Published - May 2004
The CARICOM (Caribbean) Single Market and Economy: a strategy for competitiveness in the new economy.,
REGIONAL CO-OPERATION.,ECONOMIC INTEGRATION.,CARICOM.,CARICOM SINGLE MARKET AND ECONOMY.,CARIBBEAN.,

This paper explores caribbean integration as expressed in the CSME as well as the new economy to illustrate how the CSME must reflect the nature of that economy to provide for regional competitiveness.,


Published - July, 2002
The current state and future of Caribbean agriculture
CDB, AGRICULTURE, FOOD, FOREIGN TRADE, FAO

The paper evaluates the performance of export agriculture during 1980 to 2004 for the borrowing member countries of the Caribbean Development Bank, excluding the United Kingdom dependent territories, and critically assesses the issue of food dependence and security. It sketches the broad outlines of a new agriculture policy for the Caribbean region, taking into consideration the new challenges (trade liberalisation, increased use of sanitary and phytosanitary barriers, etc.), concerns (food safety, quality, security) and opportunities (rising food prices as a result of increased demand related to global population and income growth, possible diversification into high value products, expansion of niche markets, such as for organic and fair trade products, etc.) presented by the current international environment.




Published - July 2002
The National Biodiversity Strategy and action plan for Barbados
BARBADOS, BIOTECHNOLOGY

This report is the first major document of its kind. It seeks to highlight objectives, strategies and actions necessary for the conservation and sustainable utilization of Barbados’ biological resources. It is envisaged that this document will serve as a repository for local biodiversity information to all citizens, as well as international interests. The NBSAP is also designed to provide the framework for effective management of local biological diversity and to guide future activities of the biodiversity programme in the Ministry. The principal topics examined in the NBSAP are - the local biological diversity status, the issues which affect the livelihood of terrestrial, marine and freshwater biodiversity and a conservation and sustainable management plan. The strategy and action plan takes into consideration mobilization of funding; capacity building; legislation and policy revision and formulation; research, monitoring and mitigation; public education; incentives development; land use planning; in situ and ex situ conservation; biodiversity access and benefit sharing; biosafety and biotechnology transfer; and various sectoral environmental initiatives.

 




Published - July 2002
CBI Competition: Cacao
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

Cacao production is concentrated in West Africa. A few big multinational companies dominate trade. Volatile market prices, diverse EU consumer demands and increasing sustainability and health requirements characterise the market. At  the same time, new production regions are emerging (Vietnam and India) and processing capacity is moving to producing countries (Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana) where local consumption is rising. This brings new dynamics to the competitive environment of cacao trade. Scarcity and a more differentiated/segmented demand from traditional and new consumers are two key drivers that open up opportunities for exporters.




Published - February 2015
EU buyer requirements for coffee, tea and cocoa
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE, EU, TEA, COFFEE, FOOD SAFETY, CERTIFICATION

Buyer requirements for coffee, tea and cocoa (CTC) can be divided into (1) musts, requirements you must meet in order to enter the market, such as legal requirements, (2) common requirements, which are those most of your competitors have already implemented, in other words, the ones you need to comply with in order to keep up with the market, and (3) niche market requirements for specific segments. This paper looks at sustainable certification, food safety certification, corporate social responsibility, extraction solvents, food contamination and food safety and control.




Published - [2015]
The cocoa market situation
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

This document provides an overview of the cocoa market situation from the beginning of the current 2013/2014 season to June 2014. It covers short-term price developments in the cocoa market as well as the most recently available  statistics on cocoa bean production, grindings and stocks.  The document updates the preceding review (document EC/3/2 dated 16 January 2014) which covered market developments that took place within the world cocoa economy in the 2012/2013 cocoa year, as well as projections for supply, demand and prices made by the Secretariat for the current 2013/2014 season through to 2018/2019. It also reviewed movements of cocoa futures prices on both the London and New York markets for 2012/2013, as well as for the October to December 2013 period of the current crop year.




Published - July 24, 2014
CBI trends: cacao
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

The cacao sector is currently confronted with various opportunities and threats. The market is increasingly demanding healthy products, which translates into a rising demand for dark chocolates and chocolates with a sustainability label. At the same time, buyers are becoming more interested in the actual impact of certification and expect additional efforts with respect to issues such as biodiversity conservation and climate adaptation. However, the sector is confronted with rising concerns about future supplies: children of the current farmers no longer believe in a good future in cacao and would rather go to school in the hope of finding employment outside the sector. Other issues being faced by the sector are related poverty, child and forced labour and stricter EU legislation regarding cadmium. So, with this in mind, how can you tap into the opportunities within the EU market business environment? Find out with this document on current and future trends in the cacao sector.




Published - February 2015
CBI field of competition: spices and herbs
SPICES, HERBS, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

The power of buyers in the EU has traditionally been strong but with increasing scarcity and high prices power is slowly being transferred to suppliers in origin. The good market conditions will attract new entrants in the coming years. Although this will change the competitive environment, the fact that global consumption is growing faster than production provides good opportunities for all suppliers that are able to meet the high quality and food safety buyer requirements. Opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries are found particularly at the high end of the market.




Published - [2015]
CBI buyers' black box: herbs and spices
SPICES, HERBS, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

The CBI Buyers' Black Box offers exporters and Business Support Organisations (BSOs) in developing countries (DCs) a clear and up-to-date view of what goes on in the minds of European buyers when they are sourcing from suppliers from  DCs.  This Buyers' Black Box offers sector-specific analysisi and interpretation of teh expectations buyers have of exporters in the herbs and spices sector, against the backdrop of general market trends.  The purpose is to give DC exporters an understanding of how European buyers in their sector think, act and what they focus on, as well as highlighting opportunities and considerations for action.




Published - [2015]
CBI market channels and segments: spices and herbs
SPICES, HERBS, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, MARKET INTELLIGENCE

Market channels are changing rapidly as a result of developments in the sector. The increased power and development of suppliers, scarcity and the growing popularity of sustainability are the most important drivers of change. This is accompanied by more direct sourcing, cooperation and integration in the trade channel. Small and medium-sized companies (SMEs) in developing countries (DCs) should anticipate these changing market dynamics. There are opportunities for developing your business but players that do not add value can find themselves being cut out of the supply chain.




Published - [2015]
CBI Product Factsheet: cacao in Switzerland
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, SWITZERLAND

Although the global market for chocolate confectionary is still dominated by Western Europe and North America, emerging markets clearly represent the future. The BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) accounted for 55% of global confectionery retail growth in 2011 (KPMG, 2012). Other emerging economies with young populations and an acquisitive middle class are likely to develop a taste for chocolate and, as their disposable incomes grow, will represent important target markets for Switzerland with its large and influential chocolate industry.  This paper looks at buyer and market requirements, food safety and control and provides trade statistics.




Published - March 2015
CBI product factsheet: cocoa and cocoa preparations in Finland
COCOA, TRADE PRACTICES, STATISTICAL DATA, FINLAND

Finland has a chocolate consumption level that is well above average: 5.5 kg per person per year. The market for raw materials such as cocoa beans, butter, powder and fat is not large. More often, the chocolate products are sourced from other EU member states such as the Netherlands and Germany. Providing cocoa products to the Finnish consumer is only feasible for suppliers of high quality products who adhere to strict food safety requirements. This factsheet will provide you with the most important specifications of the Finnish market for cocoa products by looking at the four P’s of the marketing mix: product, price, promotion and place.




Published - [2015]
Making intellectual property work for business: a handbook for chambers of commerce and business associations setting up intellectual property services
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, TRADE MARKS, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, SMEs,

Building on their respective work, ICC and WIPO have developed this handbook to help business associations and chambers of commerce establish business support services relating to IP. This handbook is not intended to be a legal guide to explain the nuts and bolts of IPRs, as many excellent legal guides already exist. This handbook endeavours to be a concise and practical guide to help business membership organizations set up their own IP services, illustrated with useful examples and good practices from around the world. It has benefited from the contributions of ICC National Committees, business associations and chambers of commerce worldwide, and therefore reflects real-life practice and experience.




Published - 2011
Negotiating preferential market access: the case of NAFTA
TRADE AGREEMENTS, NAFTA, USA, CANADA, MEXICO

There is a growing interest related to the theoretical analysis of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). Nevertheless, there has been as yet very little empirical research on the topic, in particular, on the negotiating dynamics of these types of agreements. This paper attempts to make a contribution in this direction examining the relationship between the two most important market access instruments in the case of NAFTA negotiations: the preferential tariff phase-outs and the accompanying rules of origin (RoO). The traditional literature has viewed market access negotiations solely in terms of tariff (and non-tariff) negotiations. From an analytical point of view, the role of RoO, that is the rules that are designed to determine the origin of products in international trade, has usually been restricted to a “secondary” or “supportive” function. As such, RoO were seen to assist in the application or implementation of other “primary” instruments. In the case of preferential RoO, they help to determine when a particular good will be granted preferential tariff treatment. Using a newly constructed data set this paper estimates a simultaneous equation model where the endogenous variables are the preferential tariff phase-outs between Mexico and the United States and the RoO under the NAFTA agreement. The empirical findings of this paper support the view that in accordance with recent literature, the NAFTA RoO were used as an independent commercial policy instrument with a “primary” market access function as it is the case with the traditional preferential tariffs.




Published - June 1999
Caribbean Export Annual Report 2009-2010: Expanding Caribbean Business in the Global Marketplace
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

The Caribbean Export Development Agency’s (Caribbean Export) undertook activities in 2009-2010 in line with its mandate to provide strategic guidance to the CARIFORUM region in enhancing competitiveness, promoting trade and export development, improving regional trade and investment relations, and enhancing linkages between CARICOM and the Dominican Republic. Caribbean Export also lead the way in demonstrating self-sustainability and strengthening the brand as the region’s only export development agency.




Published - 2011
Caribbean Export Outlook 2014-2015
MARKETING RESEARCH, CARIFORUM, EXPORT POTENTIAL, CARICOM, AGRO-PROCESSING, SERVICES, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, MUSIC, EPA, EU, BEVERAGES, BRAZIL, GUYANA, TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO, JAMAICA, OECS, TRADE, INVESTMENT, TOURISM

Caribbean Export Outlook is intended to provide this necessary level of information to facilitate the navigation of international trade by our regional exporters, whilst providing potential investors with an insight into the Caribbean business landscape. The Caribbean Export Development Agency hope that this publication will raise awareness of key issues affecting the private sector; provide information for planning firm-level and national-level export strategies; engage stakeholders, whether policy makers or trade promotion organisations, to improve the export environment for firms; and contribute to the discussion on the way forward for regional export development and promotion. This publication will also highlight to the world that we in the Caribbean produce quality goods and services that epitomize the essence of who we are as a people-passionate, diverse and exquisite.




Published - 2015
Caribbean Export Outlook 2016-2017
MARKETING RESEARCH, CARIFORUM, EXPORT POTENTIAL, CARICOM, AGRO-PROCESSING, SERVICES, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, MUSIC, EPA, EU, BEVERAGES, BRAZIL, AFRICA, GERMANY, BRAZIL, CUBA, CHINA, TRADE, INVESTMENT, TOURISM

This publication, now in its second edition, not only highlights the tremendous potential that the Caribbean has in terms of international trade, but also the breadth of opportunities available for international investors looking to capitalise on what is arguably one of the best locations in the world. In the first edition, we highlighted key markets for exporters, including select countries in West Africa, Germany and Brazil, while in this edition our attention focuses on the burgeoning interest in Cuba and China as potential markets.




Published - 2017
The Caribbean Export and GIZ Cooperation: Cooperating to Export
AFRICA, CARIBBEAN, TRADE, COTONOU, EPA, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, SERVICES, EXPORT DEVELOPMENT

The Caribbean Export Development Agency (Caribbean Export) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH have worked together for over 5 years. This collaborative partnership has developed from one of merely financial support to a strong, mutually beneficial relationship where the two agencies work cohesively on regional trade and export development. This project enables the CARIFORUM private sector to be more competitive in penetrating regional and international markets, with a particular focus on the utilisation of the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA). Caribbean Export has recently signed a second agreement/MOU with GIZ that formalises the relationship and enables further collaboration. GIZ brings a particularly valuable expertise to this initiative. Their practices draw on a wealth of regional and technical expertise as well as tried and tested management know-how. Their services span many fields: economic development and employment promotion; governance and democracy; security, reconstruction, peace building and civil conflict transformation; food security, health and basic education; environmental protection, resource conservation and climate change mitigation. This publication highlights some of the successful projects that Caribbean Export and GIZ have worked on together over the past 5 years.




Published - 2015
The Development and Implementation of National Investment Promotion Strategies: A step by step guide
INVESTMENT, FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT, CARICOM

This publication is the first in a series of advisory documents on investment promotion that is being published by Caribbean Export. The document serves as a practical guide on how to develop and implement national investment promotion strategies and is intended to benefit practitioners in investment promotion agencies in the Caribbean.  Caribbean Export’s Investment Promotion Advisory Series seeks to focus attention on the issues related to investment promotion and facilitation, including but not limited to image building, marketing and promotions, research and policy advocacy and the business climate.




Published - 2015
Caribbean Export and EPA implementation in the Caribbean services sector (2011-2014)
SERVICES, TRADE IN SERVICES, CARIBBEAN, EPA,CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, SPECIALISED TORUISM, PROFESSIONAL SERVICES

As the regional agency, leading the implementation the 10th European Development Fund (EDF) Regional Private Sector Programme (RPSDP), from March 2011 - December 2015 across CARIFORUM, the Caribbean Export Development Agency (Caribbean Export) undertook a range of programme-based activities, which has implications for the application of the EPA regionally, given the 10th EDF’s overall objective of contributing to the gradual integration of CARIFORUM countries into the world economy. This handbook provides a summary of activities undertaken by Caribbean Export specifically development work in the services sector, under the component of the Agency’s 10th EDF work programme, which speaks to identifying and strengthening the region’s high potential niche sectors to benefit from EPA provisions. The creative industries, professional services, and specialised tourism are highlighted as target sectors in this arrangement, and have been recipients of programming aimed at providing increased access to finance, delivering training and certification, strengthening regional networks, and facilitating the participation of firms in regional and international missions.




Published - 2015
Assessment of Framework and Opportunities for Enhancing Export Trade between Guyana, Suriname and Brazil
BRAZIL, GUYANA, SURINAME, BUSINESS PPORTUNITIES, TRADE, EXPORT, FOREIGN TRADE

This report details an immediate (i.e. within two years) set of actions that are geared at addressing the underwhelming performance of Guyana and Suriname based firms in the markets of the Troika (Guyana, Suriname and Brazil are jointly referred to as The Troika). The report details actions that may be feasible for the client to pursue, and others which are more clearly the responsibility of the Governments of Guyana and Suriname.




Published - March 2014
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analysis Report: Arts and Craft
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, ARTS AND CRAFT, HANDICRAFTS, CARIFORUM

This value chain’s analysis includes the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. On this basis, this report considers the value chains using a two‐fold approach: analysis of the supply (CARIFORUM) side, and analysis of the demand (EU) side. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); joint‐ventures and e‐commerce platforms ‐ both Business‐to‐Consumer (B2C) and Business‐to‐Business (B2B).




Published - July 08, 2015
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analyses Final Report
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CARIFORUM

The creative chain consists of an initial creative idea, which is usually combined with other inputs to produce a culture good or service, through a series of interlinked stages between their production and use. A culture product must be created, produced, possibly manufactured or reproduced, and then distributed before it reaches, or is used by, a consumer. This chain of activity includes a number of distinct steps, usually occurring in business establishments. However, in order to collect harmonised and, when possible, comparable data, a simple value chain as a framework of analysis (linear value chain) was used. Nevertheless, we consider the local ecosystem as a key factor influencing CCIs’ supply chain and their performance. The value chain’s analysis will therefore include the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); joint‐ventures and e‐commerce platforms ‐ both Business‐to‐Consumer (B2C) and Business‐to‐Business (B2B).




Published - August 31, 2015
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analysis Report: Painting (Visual Arts)
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CARIFORUM, VISUAL ARTS, PAINTINGS

The value chain’s analysis includes the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. On this basis, this report considers the value chains using a twofold approach: analysis of the supply (CARIFORUM) side, and analysis of the demand (EU) side. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); jointventures and ecommerce platforms both BusinesstoConsumer (B2C) and BusinesstoBusiness (B2B).




Published - July 8, 2015
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analysis Report: Jewellery
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CARIFORUM, JEWELLERY

The value chain’s analysis includes the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. On this basis, this report considers the value chains using a twofold approach: analysis of the supply (CARIFORUM) side, and analysis of the demand (EU) side. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); jointventures and ecommerce platforms both BusinesstoConsumer (B2C) and BusinesstoBusiness (B2B).




Published - July 26, 2015
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analysis Report: Music
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CARIFORUM, MUSIC

The value chain’s analysis includes the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. On this basis, this report considers the value chains using a twofold approach: analysis of the supply (CARIFORUM) side, and analysis of the demand (EU) side. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); jointventures and ecommerce platforms both BusinesstoConsumer (B2C) and BusinesstoBusiness (B2B).




Published - July 8, 2015
Development of a Regional Export Strategy for the Creative Industries Services - Value Chain Analysis Report: Fashion
VALUE CHAIN, CREATIVE INDUSTRIES, CARIFORUM, FASHION

The value chain’s analysis includes the analysis of the policy environment, measures and key actors enabling the sector’s development and growth. In elaborating on these chains, special emphasis was placed on determining the existence of and/or practical scope for integration of complementary inputs at any point along the chain, from differing CARIFORUM member states up to and including the final stage of the chain. On this basis, this report considers the value chains using a twofold approach: analysis of the supply (CARIFORUM) side, and analysis of the demand (EU) side. With regards to possible business cooperation opportunities in the target EU markets, attention has been given, where possible, to the following inter alia: EU distributor or agent (including marketing and promotional activities); jointventures and ecommerce platforms both BusinesstoConsumer (B2C) and BusinesstoBusiness (B2B).




Published - July 8, 2015
Creating Opportunities: 2013 Annual Report of The Caribbean Export Development Agency
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

The Caribbean Export Development Agency carries out numerous programme-based activities designed to enhance the competitiveness of regional small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), promote trade and development among the CARIFORUM, promote stronger trade and investment relations among CARIFORUM and the French Caribbean and Outermost Regions (FCORs) and the European Union (EU) Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) in the Caribbean, as well as promote stronger trade and investment cooperation between the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the Dominican Republic. The 2013 annual report provides a break down of the activities for the year.




Published - 2014
Laying the Foundation for Success: 2014 Annual Report of The Caribbean Export Development Agency
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

Caribbean Export’s work among regional SMEs is centred on six strategic areas: investment promotion, access to finance, export development, export promotion, business advocacy and sustainability. With each year of implementation, the Agency has seen increased participation in programme-based interventions from not only SMEs, but also from our partner agencies in private sector development, which are the business support organisations and public sector agencies across CARIFORUM. This annual report provides an overview of the activities undertaken in 2014.




Published - 2015
Building on Success: 2015 Annual Report of The Caribbean Export Development Agency
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

During the period January-December 2015, The Caribbean Export Development Agency centred its development results within six priority areas: investment promotion, access to finance, export development, export promotion, business advocacy and institutional sustainability, and with each year of EDF implementation, Caribbean Export has seen increased engagement, and positive results from participation in programme-based interventions from SMEs, BSOs, and the public sector.  This 2015 annual report provides a synopsis of the actvities undertaken.




Published - 2016
Caribbean Export Annual Report, 2008
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

The Caribbean Export Development Agency’s implementation strategy is to integrate the project activities into its work plan through the Contribution Agreement now signed between the European Commission (EC) and Caribbean Export.  This is a major step forward for the relationship between the EC and Caribbean Export, since it allows the Agency to use its own procedures and rules, which have been audited and approved by the EC.  The Annual Report 2008 continues to focus on the work undertaken and the results achieved within its four broad objectives, during the year. The body of the report is preceded by our Vision and Mission statements and is followed by a short section looking ahead to 2009.




Published - 2009
Vision into Action: 2012 Annual Report of The Caribbean Export Development Agency
YEARBOOK, ANNUAL REPORT, CARIBBEAN, EVALUATION

In 2012 Caribbean Export Development Agency (Caribbean Export) took the decision to focus programme implementation around seven key zones, which reflect the Agency’s approach to regional development, namely investment  promotion, access to finance, research and market intelligence, trade agreements: advocacy and awareness, export promotion and development, fostering partnerships, and Caribbean Export’s capacity building. This Annual Report outlines the activities undertaken within each zone.




Published - 2013
Doing business with the Dominican Republic
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Dominican Republic. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Dominican Republic.




Published - December 2010
Doing business with Venezuela
VENEZUELA, TRADE PRACTICES, TRADE FACILITATION, TRADE OPPORTUNITIES, TRADE POLICY, IMPORT POLICY

This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Venezuela. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Venezuela.




Published - August 2008
The state of food insecurity in the World: The multiple dimensions of food security
FAO.,FOOD.,

The 2013 report goes beyond measuring chronic food deprivation. It presents a broader suite of indicators that aims to capture the multidimensional nature of food insecurity, its determinants and outcomes. This suite, compiled for every country, allows a more nuanced picture of their food security status, guiding policy-makers in the design and implementation of targeted and effective policy measures that can contribute to the eradication of hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition. Drawing on the suite of indicators, the report also examines the diverse experiences of six countries. These experiences show that other forms of malnutrition can sometimes be more significant than undernourishment. In such circumstances, policy interventions to improve food security need to include nutrition-sensitive interventions in agriculture and the food system as a whole, as well as in public health and education, especially of women. Nutrition-focused social protection may need to target the most vulnerable, including pregnant women, adolescent girls and children.

Policies aimed at enhancing agricultural productivity and increasing food availability, especially when smallholders are targeted, can achieve hunger reduction even where poverty is widespread. When they are combined with social protection and other measures that increase the incomes of poor families, they can have an even more positive effect and spur rural development, by creating vibrant markets and employment opportunities, resulting in equitable economic growth. Not surprisingly, the specific country experiences suggest that high poverty levels generally go hand in hand with high levels of undernourishment. But undernourishment can also be more severe than poverty, especially when both are at high levels. As food is one of the most incomeresponsive of all basic necessities, higher incomes can therefore expedite reductions in undernourishment.

 

 




Published - 2013
Exporting to Canada - A Handbook. Tenth Edition, 2013
CANADA, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES,I NTERNATIONAL TRADE, IMPORT REGULATIONS

This handbook provides an overview of the Canadian economy and market, current trends in Canadian imports and opportunities created by these trends. Contains information on importation of how to market products in Canada. Includes names and addresses of agencies and organisations of importance to potential exporters to Canada.




Published - 2013

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