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Paper presented by Lesley-Ann Noel at the 2nd Meeting of the Caribbean Design Network, December 10, 2009, Dominican Republic entitled "Trinidad and Tobago Design Network"
So trade policy has expanded, has become much more complex. Hence the focus in this assessment, not just on market opening, multilateral trade policy, etc, but also on questions of development, transparency and legitimacy, the impact on key sectors, and social / societal questions. This can reveal for how far trade policy drives our collective preferences, and also the point of interaction with the preferences of others. This paper therefore sets out six groups of topics where we have focused our efforts under the Prodi Commission:1 Multilateralism; 2 Opening of markets; 3: Development; 4: Transparency / legitimacy; 5: Key sectors; 6: Social / societal Questions.
This study highlights potential areas for mutual growth in the goods and services sectors and possible improvements to the regulatory framework. Ways in which CARIFORUM goods could gain access to the EU via the French Caribbean Outermost Regions (FCORs) are also analysed.
Each country/territory report provides details on: Socioeconomic characteristics of each country/territory; Proximity to main international destinations; Critical information relating to doing business – regulatory environment, tax rates, procedure for starting a business, etc; Commitments made under the EPA; Commodity exports to the FCORs (from CARIFORUM) and to CARIFORUM (from the FCORs); Opportunities in terms of goods and services that should be targeted for trade between CARIFORUM and the FCORs and Barriers to trade.
This survey profiles the EU market for “Gifts and decorative articles” (2008). The emphasis of this survey lies on those products which are of importance to suppliers based in developing countries. The product groups discussed in this survey include: Candles, Woodware, Wickerwork, Artificial flowers & fruits, Ceramics, Glassware, Metalware, Plasticware and Paperware.
The Strategy aims to achieve this by establishing export promotion as a key instrument of Belize’s competitiveness and international relations, but within the context of the country’s medium to long term strategic national development objectives and imperatives. This will allow for two things: (i) attraction of investments into dynamic high growth potential niche markets while building capacity in the sectors with export performance development potential; and (ii) Belize will be able to aggressively pursue development of export markets for its niches products and services and to better identify its key strategic partner countries in development and trade by leveraging trade and export promotion as instruments of national development, environmental sustainability, and pro-poor growth. This should lead to real poverty reduction, and Belize would, as a consequence of all of the above, be better positioned to achieve its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) objectives and obligations.
During the 1980s and 1990s, financial sectors were the Achilles’ heel of economic development in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Since then, these sectors have grown and deepened, becoming more integrated and competitive, with new actors, markets, and instruments springing up and financial inclusion broadening. To crown these achievements, the region’s financial systems were left largely unscathed by the global financial crisis of 2008–09. Now that the successes of LAC’s macrofinancial stability are widely recognized and tested, it is high time for an in-depth stocktaking of what remains to be done. Financial Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Road Ahead provides both a stocktaking and a forward-looking assessment of the region’s financial development. Rather than going into detail about sector-specific issues, the report focuses on the main architectural issues, overall perspectives, and interconnections. The report’s value added thus hinges on its holistic view of the development process, its broad coverage of the financial services industry beyond banking, its emphasis on benchmarking, its systemic perspective, and its explicit effort to incorporate the lessons from the recent global financial crisis. Financial Development in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Road Ahead builds on and complements several overview studies on financial development in both LAC countries and the developing world that were published in the past decade. It will be of interest to policy makers and financial analysts interested in improving the financial sector in the LAC region.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Colombia. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Colombia.
This market brief provides information on the opportunities available for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) in engineering services.
This market brief provides information on the opportunities available for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) in fashion.
This market brief provides information on the opportunities available for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) in furniture.
This market brief provides information on the opportunities available for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) in handicrafts.
This market brief provides information on the opportunities available for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) in health and wellness services.
This market brief provides information on the opportunities available for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) in management consulting services.
This market brief provides information on the opportunities available for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) in processed foods.
This paper tries to fill this lacunae by providing a selective, although fairly comprehensive, discussion of some of the main developmental issues posed by the FTAA and FTAs. This is an issues paper. Its main objective is to raise relevant questions and review different academic and expert positions as well as existing empirical research results surrounding them. In light of the complexity of the subject matter, it would be over-ambitious to provide definite answers to these issues. Thus the spirit of this paper is more analytical and positive than normative or prescriptive.
The paper considers the developmental benefits and issues posed by the FTAA and FTAs in general, for LAC countries grouping them under six issue areas: (i) market access issues in industrial goods and agriculture; (ii) market access and rules issues in services and investment; (iii) other rules related issues in areas such as intellectual property, subsidies and industrial policy; (iv) the question of treatment of differences in size and levels of development, (v) technical assistance and capacity building issues, and finally, (vi) governance issues and the relationship between open markets and political institutions. In terms of trade rules in a number of areas, World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements provide – if not the floor – at least a very important reference point for the FTAA. Given this fact, this paper makes frequent reference to WTO rules and their developmental implications.
The objective of this paper is threefold: to review the demand, and the case, for regional public goods in the light of growing integration; to report on the response of certain international organizations and the system of official development assistance to perceived growth in the demand of these goods; and to analyze the challenges of financing regional public goods.
The purpose of this document is to describe, analyze and assess export promotion policies in the case of CARICOM Caribbean economies. The document is divided into six sections. Following the introduction, the first section provides the context for export promotion policies by analyzing how size and geography can shape export promotion efforts and their outcome. The second section focuses on CARICOM Caribbean economies’ export promotion objectives. The argument in this section is that smaller economies pursue three types of export promotion objectives. These are to secure markets, to maximize foreign exchange earnings, and to promote product recognition. Securing markets, which is analyzed at the national and regional levels, involves niche-market production for non- traditional products and preferential market access for traditional products. The exception to the rule is Guyana that has managed to create an ethnic niche-market for its agricultural products. The section also argues that smaller economies do not pursue, with a few exceptions, export diversification.
The third section examines the institutional setting and instruments for export promotion policies. For historical reasons and also due to the constraints imposed by small size, the government rather than the private sector is the major export promotion agent. The instruments for export promotion include the Common External Tariff, fiscal incentives, government capital expenditure, export financing schemes and trade diplomacy. The fourth section analyses the implications and impact of export promotion policies. It sustains that CARICOM Caribbean economies have lost market share in the goods market for their major extra-regional markets and gained market share at the intraregional level. In the services sector and in particular in tourism, CARICOM Caribbean states have also lost market share to the lower costs producers such as the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Mexico.
The PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the challenges in the implementation of services and investment in the EPA.
The paper focuses on electronic commerce and the opportunities and challenges it creates for the CARICOM region. Section I presents an overview of e-commerce and explores the relevance of this medium for the Caribbean. Section II examines e-commerce in the context of CARICOM countries and national policy initiatives in this area. Section III discusses the pre-requisites for successful e-commerce and assesses the factors affecting it in the Region. Section IV examines trade policy and negotiation issues relating to e-commerce in the multilateral and hemispheric contexts; and Section V provides recommendations for a CARICOM position.
The report contains five chapters. After the introduction, the second chapter examines the external trade policy of the region. It identifies priorities and policy options among the different set of negotiations, taking the issue of sequencing into account. In addition, it analyses the institutional framework for the negotations. Capacity building is an important issue in this context. Chapter 3 deals with the role of the CSME in the context of the external trade negotiations and the repositioning process. It addresses the progress in implementing liberalisation of the movement of goods, services, labour and capital and assesses progress on macroeconomic convergence. Finally, opportunities provided by the trade and co-operation agreements with other countries in the region are examined, notably with Haiti, The Dominican Republic, Cuba, Venezuela, Colombia, the OCTs and DOMS and with Latin America. Chapter 4 examines the impact of liberalisation and resulting restructuring and policy options, referred to as the process of strategic global repositioning. It analyses which sectors are likely to loose and which sectors may gain from liberalisation. In addition, it identifies the options for policy makers for stimulating a supply response. These policy options cover infrastructure, improving access to finance and stimulating knowledge driven sectors, but also private sector support through the promotion of co-operation and clustering between businesses, and through providing business support services. The final chapter concludes and provides recommendations for strategy and policy and identifies the areas that need to be strengthened.
The study commissioned by Caribbean Export, aims at developing a strategy for the development of the Caribbean management consulting industry. According to the study, the market for management consulting services is two-tiered, with a top level that dominates in value and a low level that dominates in client numbers. 63.4% of clients spend under US$100,000 annually on consulting assignments, accounting for just 10.1% of the market, while 12.9% of clients spend over US$500,000 each year, accounting for about 62.3% of the market.
Strengthening the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of the British and Dutch Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) in the Caribbean region presented by the EU Delegation to Barbados and the Eastern Caribbean at the 6th Meeting of the CARIFIRUM/FCOR/OCT Task Force on Trade and Investment, Martinique, October 27, 2010.
Trinidad and Tobago Coalition of Services Industries (TTCSI) Presentation on the Trade mission to Guadeloupe and Martinique at the 6th Meeting of the CARIFORUM/FCOR/OCT Task Force on Trade and Investment, Martinique, October 27, 2010.
Jamaica's strategy for increasing services exports to the FCORs/OCTs - presented at the 6th Meeting of the CARIFORUM/FCOR/OCT Task Force on Trade and Investment, Martinique, October, 2010
Doing Business between CARIFORUM and Curacao presented at the 6th Meeting of the CARIFORUM/FCOR/OCT Task Force on Trade and Investment, Martinique, October 27, 2010
Presented by the Chair of the CARIFORUM/FCOR/OCT Task Force on Interconnectivity at the 6th Meeting of the CARIFORUM/FCOR/OCT Task Force on Trade and Investment, Martinique, Ictober 27, 2010
Consultancy on opportunities for doing business between CARIFORUM States and the French Outermost Regions (FCORs) presented at the Task Force Meeting, October, 2010 by Noel Watson and Lucia Angelo.
This study deals with institutional and legal framework of the CSME; intra-regional market access; CARICOM's sectoral development policies; the macroeconomic framework; prioritisation action plan and the role of donors. Please visit http://www.oecs.org/oecs-library/e-union/caricom-single-market-and-economy-assessment-of-the-region-s-support-needs-june-24-2003opt3-pdf for an e-copy of the publication.
This report suggests areas where Governments can provide an appropriate framework for the private sector to develop. It also recognises that not all CARIFORUM countries will be able to sustain an export fishing industry and as such not all recommendations will be applicable to all CARIFORUM countries. The report also suggests that regional organisations such as CARIFORUM can make a substantial contribution to building the sustainability of the fishing industries of CARIFORUM countries through agencies such as the proposed CAHFSA agency. As such, this report is directed toward CARIFORUM Governments, CARIFORUM donor agencies and the private sector.
Crowdfunding’s Potential in the Caribbean: A Preliminary Assessment, was commissioned by infoDev, a global technology and innovation program at the World Bank Group. This is the second in a series of studies published by infoDev on the topic, the first being Crowdfunding’s Potential for the Developing World (infoDev 2013). Since it is the first study to focus on developing crowdfunding in the Caribbean, it provides a preliminary assessment with the objective of disseminating information that can be utilized by the many different actors in the Caribbean entrepreneurial ecosystem. The intended audience for this introductory paper includes key Caribbean stakeholders concerned with access to finance, specifically: the private sector, the business enabler community, governments and regulatory bodies, and international financial institutions.
This report’s scope is a preliminary assessment of the potential viability of crowdfunding in the Caribbean, which serves as an initial step for further research. It examines three essential elements, which are the building blocks of a well-functioning crowdfunding ecosystem:
For this assessment, the methodology was to conduct extensive in-person interviews with over 70 stakeholders from the public and private sector in Saint Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, and Jamaica. These countries were selected to provide input from nations with varying populations, geographic locations (including The Organization of Eastern Caribbean States) and economic development. The findings from the survey revealed that, so far, there have been only experimental levels of crowdfunding in the Caribbean. This experimentation has occurred primarily on U.S.-based crowdfunding platforms (for example, Kickstarter, Indiegogo, and GoFundMe). The growing utilization of the Internet and social media facilitated by existing networks for remittance capital flows has resulted in the emergence of a handful of nascent Caribbean platforms. However, the Caribbean culture of being risk adverse and low in trust for online financial systems coupled with the low awareness of crowdfunding in the region are barriers to widespread adoption.
This document outlines the international context for our agenda to strengthen aid effectiveness and the principles that will guide our efforts. These include providing increased attention to the leadership role of developing countries, promoting greater coordination with other donors, and fostering greater coherence in Canada’s policies that affect our developing-country partners. In keeping with the principles, this document identifies the framework within which decisions will be made on the geographical and sectoral allocation of CIDA’s resources. It also identifies changes in tied aid policies designed to reinforce aid effectiveness and the steps we are taking to strengthen CIDA as an institution.
The outlook for 2014 is slow growth in most of the individual economies. IMF projections show eight countries growing faster in 2014 than in 2013 but no faster than 2.7 per cent. In the countries projected to grow less rapidly in 2014, namely Guyana, Haiti and Suriname, the growth rate is expected to be in the region of four per cent. Inflation rates are projected to increase in ten of the 14 countries, with inflation abating in only Barbados, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. The external balance is expected to improve in eight countries and to deteriorate in five others. Government finances are projected to remain problematic with the primary balance expected to deteriorate in five countries and with the gross debt ratio increasing in 12 countries, including countries which are already highly indebted.
Reviews and discuss the various modalities in which trade information can be distributed to target end-users. Includes examples illustrating the various option at hand. Hard copy document only.
Includes profiles of 152 sources of information that can be used to locate importers. Hard copy document only.
The workshop was the culmination of country studies that were carried out under an Italian Government-funded project to assess the policies, institutions and instruments for dynamic Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) development competitiveness in Jamaica, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago. The aim was to use the lessons learned from the three countries to inform policy and practice in the other member countries of the Caribbean Development and Cooperation Committee (CDCC).
This document represents the first step in the process to develop an Agency Strategic Plan. This document is a position paper, a snapshot of the Agency’s priorities and direction. It seeks to inform stakeholders – member states, CARICOM Secretariat, CARIFORUM Directorate, OECS Secretariat, our exporter and investor clients, national promotional and business support organisations, international and regional development partners and the general public – about the work of Caribbean Export and our current priorities and directions.
Please see WTO website http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp_rep_e.htm#bycountry.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Trinidad and Tobago. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Trinidad and Tobago.
This report offers a detailed assessment of recent progress achieved in the three main areas of the integration process: economic integration, foreign policy coordination and functional cooperation. It also analyses the determinants of integration - what drives it, what slows it down - in an effort to generate a better understanding of the challenges and prospects of the Caribbean integration process.
The Caribbean’s location at the crossroads of global container shipping routes gives the region excellent maritime connectivity that could translate into significant commercial opportunities. Given its heavy dependence on trade, Caribbean authorities are increasingly vested in improving the efficiency of supply chains and addressing issues related to maritime transport and logistics. In the context of the Panama Canal expansion, it is of the utmost important that steps be taken immediately to strengthen the Caribbean’s position in global maritime trade routes. The Caribbean Regional Action Plan on Freight Logistics, Maritime Transport and Trade Facilitation reviews the status of trade and transport infrastructure in the Caribbean Basin, with particular emphasis on CARIFORUM countries. The study highlights the main trends in global and regional trade flows in the region, estimates the impact of these trends on the shipping industry and selected Caribbean Basin ports, and proposes a regional Action Plan for taking advantage of new commercial opportunities.
The Private Sector Assessment Report (PSAR) provides a comprehensive overview of the private sector in St. Lucia. It draws on both primary and secondary data sources. Primary data analyses were derived from interviews with key stakeholders from the domestic private and public sectors as well as interviews with regional and international agencies. A listing of the main stakeholders in each country is documented in the original country reports. Secondary data wereutilized to describe the state of the country at both the micro and macro levels. In addition to these specific elements of the research, the development of the PSAR was assisted by consultations organized under the Caribbean Growth Forum2 (CGF) banner.
The PSAR analyses the characteristics and primary components of the private sector, key challenges to private-sector development, emerging sectors, and finally presents an action plan for the promotionof private-sector development. The PSAR suggests that the government should focus on improvement and utilization of technology and on strengthening the labour force.
This hand-book is designed to put the right information into the hands of our tourism industry to make sure we take full advantage of the EPA. Written in as straightforward and accessible a style as possible, this hand-book summarises the provisions in the Agreement which will affect tourism. It provides a country-by country breakdown of the Caribbean’s EPA commitments to reduce tariffs on European goods and to allow European firms to provide services in our region, and it gives a full analysis of the development funding which is available and how to access it. If as a result of exploring this handbook you have specific or detailed enquiries about the EPA, CHTA is additionally able to provide through specialists a practical advice service by telephone or email. More detailed information about this service and full access to an on-line version of the report are available from our website www.caribbeanhotelassociation.com.
The first step is to talk. Essentially, the WTO is a place where member governments go, to try to sort out the trade problems they face with each other. At its heart are WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations. But the WTO is not just about liberalizing trade, and in some circumstances its rules support maintaining trade barriers — for example to protect consumers, prevent the spread of disease or protect the environment. For further information visit www.wto.org.
Odyssey in International Markets is the second report of the Integration and Trade Sector of the Inter-American Development Bank aimed at helping countries in Latin America and the Caribbean identify obstacles that stand in the way of more effective integration into the world economy and design policies to reduce these impediments to trade. The report first makes a comprehensive analysis of export promotion organizations in some three dozen countries and regions. Second, it provides robust evaluations, using state-of-the-art econometrics and original datasets, of the impacts that policies have had on export outcomes of countries and firms. The report is supported by rigorous background studies that are available as IDB Working Papers through the Bank´s website. Based on the findings of this report, it appears that export promotion seems to have been effective in facilitating export expansion, especially along the extensive margin (i.e., diversification). At the same time, the report points to areas where further research would produce deeper insights into its relative merits.
The objective of this report is to set out the opportunities that arise from this Agreement; to provide trade data; and outline the regulatory framework for providing selected professional services in 8 Member States of the EU and to assist the CARIFORUM countries and the relevant professional associations within them in making the necessary adjustments and informing negotiations so as to maximize the benefits envisaged by the EPA.
The paper addresses the issue on the interaction between monetary and macroprudential policies in small open economies for different exchange rate regimes. The need for macroprudential policy arises from exacerbated macroeconomic fluctuations due to frictions in the financial system as in Bernanke, Gertler and Gilchrist (1999). Understanding these dynamics in developing nations has been even more important after the most recent events of the Great Recession. Policy makers within the scrutinized economies will see the exact magnitude of shocks caused by changes in financial frictions, monetary and macroprudential policy. Exchange rate considerations are also brought to the fore, by assessing the effects of these policies on two emerging economies from the Caribbean with differing monetary policy frameworks. Despite differences between flexible and fear of floating exchange rate regimes, macroprudential policies implementation help mitigate the effects of credit supply shocks affecting regional economies.
This study uses simulations of state-dependent distributions of fiscal limits for 18 economies in Central America and the Caribbean to better understand governments’ ability to service their debt, arising from endogenously determined dynamic Laffer curves. Using a small, open economy model to simulate macroeconomic fundamentals and fiscal policy interactions, the empirical findings produced results not previous available for these economies, showing varying and wider distributions of fiscal limits for the open economy model subject to terms-of-trade and flexible exchange rate shocks. This indicates that terms-of-trade and exchange rate volatility impacted the ability of national economies to service their debt. It is therefore prudent that policymakers and central bankers consider models that incorporate the use of trade and exchange rate volatility as a robust way of more accurately determining fiscal limits, which are a critical component in understanding governments’ ability to service their debt.
This booklet discusses the text of the TBT Agreement as it appears in the Final Act of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, signed in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994. This agreement and others contained in the Final Act, along with the amended General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT 1994), are part of the treaty which established the WTO. The WTO superseded the GATT as the umbrella organization for international trade.
The WTO Secretariat has prepared this booklet to assist public understanding of the TBT Agreement. The booklet first presents the basic structure of WTO agreements. It then provides a brief overview of the background, purpose and scope of the TBT Agreement, as well as the types of measures it covers. It sets out the key principles of the Agreement, and discusses how these have been addressed in recent disputes brought under the TBT Agreement. It next focuses on transparency, a cornerstone of the TBT Agreement. It also describes the mandate, role and work of the TBT Committee, and considers how TBT-related matters have arisen in the Doha Round negotiations. A separate section addresses a number of frequently asked questions about the Agreement. The booklet also contains the full text of the TBT Agreement, decisions and recommendations by the TBT Committee, a list of observers in the TBT Committee and an example of a typical TBT notification.
De-risking has the potential to develop into a threat to Barbados posing a challenge to the country's continued development and economic stability if left unchecked. Early indications are that the de-risking phenomenon may have already begun to erode Barbados’ competitive position as a leading IFC in the Caribbean region. Any sustained loss of IBC business for Barbados will undoubtedly lower government tax receipts, negatively impact employment, and could impact the level of FX availability in the domestic financial system.
This policy brief answers three main questions with respect to the no-user-fee policy adopted across public health centres in Jamaica: (i) Has the policy improved health status among working age adults? (ii) Has the policy influenced labour market dynamics? (iii) Has the policy had differential effects by age groups? Evidence suggests that the policy improved overall health status, as the likelihood of suffering illnesses associated with inability to carry out normal activities decreased by 28.6 percent. In addition, the number of days where people were unable to perform normal activities due to illnesses suffered within the previous four weeks decreased by 34 percent. Regarding labour market dynamics, no effects are found on the likelihood of being employed or contributing to the National Insurance Scheme. However, consistent with a reduced number of days lost due to illnesses, we find a positive effect of 2.15 additional weekly labour hours. Finally, we find that all of these positive effects are concentrated within adults in the 40– 64 year-old age range. Overall, these effects suggest that the policy added a yearly average of US$PPP 26.6 million worth of net real production to the Jamaican economy during the period 2008–12.
This directory provides a list of the membership of the Trinidad and Tobago Manufacturers' Association (TTMA).
This report was prepared on behalf of the International Trade Center. It draws on primary information from field interviews in Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Guyana during July-August 2015 and phone interviews with stakeholders in Belize, Suriname, St Lucia, St Vincent and Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago during September-November 2015. The aftermath of Tropical Storm Erika in Dominica in August 2015 did not permit primary research in the country. The coconut global value chain (GVC) is at a critical juncture, characterized by a rapidly growing demand in global markets and a stagnant supply base in danger of collapse in origin countries. Since the early 2000s, breakthroughs in processing technology and consumer awareness about the health benefits of coconut water have remarkably expanded markets beyond the tropics. Coconut value chains in the Caribbean region have mirrored the positive global market trends. Informed by the ‘multi-level perspective’, the report presents detailed analysis and recommendations for the Caribbean countries.
This study examines factors relating to the profile of firms, macroeconomic conditions, the business climate, and laments of businesspersons as possible constraints to performance. The findings reveal that an unfavorable macroeconomic environment and business climate affects all firms in the private sector. With respect to the former, the main issue relates to an overvalued exchange rate—a negative externality of being hydrocarbon-dependent. An unfavorable business climate reflects government policies, regulations, and public services that hinder rather than promote a dynamic, export-oriented and innovative private sector. Moreover, the profile of private sector firms—an important determinant of performance—is unfavourable in terms of age, size, legal form, and trade orientation. Estimates from this study suggests limited access to financing, and labour and crime constraints are the three main microeconomic factors that weigh negatively on the sales growth of firms.
This report documents SME participation in today’s fast-evolving trading system and contributes to a better understanding of the determinants and consequences of this participation, with the aim of adding to the debate on the role of SMEs in making growth more inclusive. This introductory section consists of three parts. First, it defines SMEs for the purpose of this report and discusses why they matter in their domestic economies. Second, it explains what this report is about, why it is timely and how it contributes to the debate on the role of SMEs. Finally it presents the structure of the report and highlights some important findings.
This study focuses on identifying the basic logistics capabilities in Belize, Central America and the Dominican Republic. It concentrates on the ports and sea network, taking into consideration intermodal networks involving both land and sea components together with the major performance drivers of intermodal networks including geography, infrastructure, regulations and trade requirements.
This text focuses on licensing as a means of exploiting intellectual property (IP). Before examining the licensing process it is important to consider the context in which licensing may occur. IP, as an asset to a business, may be exploited in many ways. A business may acquire IP for defensive purposes – using the IP to prevent copying of the businesses products or service or to assert in response to an IP challenge from another party. IP may also be used offensively – aggressively asserting it to frustrate competitors, obtain market share, control geographic markets, or generate revenue. Many businesses use their IP assets as leverage in negotiations for business deals, such as, for example, joint research and development arrangements, acquisitions or mergers, or strategic collaborations. Sophisticated businesses use IP for many different business purposes; basic licensing as discussed in this text is only one way to exploit IP.
The Global Value Chains Development Report is a joint publication of the World Bank Group, the Institute of Developing Economies (IDE–JETRO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Research Center of Global Value Chains (RCGVC-UIBE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), based on joint research efforts to better understand the ongoing development and evolution of global value chains and their implications for economic development. This first report draws contributions from 16 background papers presented and discussed at the conference “Making Global Value Chains Work for Economic Development and Shared Prosperity” in Beijing during March 17–18, 2016, organized by the RCGVC and the China Development Research Foundation. Drafts of the eight chapters of the report were presented and discussed at the second Authors’ Conference in Washington, DC, during November 28–29, 2016, organized by the World Bank.
This updated edition of WTO Dispute Settlement: One-Page Case Summaries has been prepared by the Legal Affairs Division of the WTO with assistance from the Rules Division and the Appellate Body Secretariat. This new edition covers all panel and Appellate Body reports adopted by the WTO Dispute Settlement Body as of 31 December 2016.
This publication summarizes on a single page the core facts and substantive findings contained in the adopted panel and, where applicable, Appellate Body reports for each decided case. Where relevant, the publication also summarizes key findings on significant procedural matters. The additional case summaries provided in this 2017 edition serve to further illustrate the active recourse of WTO members to resolve their disputes through the WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding. I’m sure it will continue to be seen as an essential reference for all students, practitioners and researchers of the WTO system.
This publication celebrates the ITA's twentieth anniversary,reviews the impact of the ITA and its expansion, and shares insights on the role of information technology for development, including its contribution to the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. As WTO members explore paths to advance the multilateral trading system in the years ahead, the ITA experience, as documented here, may provide some useful lessons.
the report focuses on the role of skills in explaining trade patterns and performance, as well as on their role in mediating the effects of trade on economic efficiency and distribution. The objective of the report is to consider how coherence between trade and skills development policies can be ensured by shedding light on the linkages between trade and skills, with a view to understanding when and how skills development policies can be used by governments to maximize the gains from trade and to ensure that these gains are shared broadly. The report combines findings from the economic literature – both theoretical and empirical work – and lessons from the ILO’s STED Programme. Economic theory provides a number of interesting insights regarding the effects of skills endowments on trade patterns and performance. It also helps us to understand the various channels through which trade affects the demand for skills; and it clearly spells out how changes in the demand for skills interact with the supply of skills in determining the impact of globalization on labour market outcomes. The empirical literature provides evidence on the various channels through which trade affects the demand for skills and shows that their importance varies with countries’ levels of economic development. More recent studies also focus on the role of particular skills in shaping the impact of globalization on individual workers.
This publication focuses on the close relationship between food standards and trade. It describes the system governing the development and implementation of food standards. It further highlights the importance of rules, the harmonization of regulations on the basis of international standards, and the need for countries to be prepared in order to take advantage of the system. The text offers insights for decision-makers in national governments and other stakeholders dealing with trade, standards, regulations and food policy. It explains that by bringing together trade, food safety and food standards, building awareness, domestic capacity and promoting collaboration, there can be tangible public health and economic benefits. Part I describes the system of Codex standards and WTO agreements. Part II examines the dynamics of the system in action and the importance of preparation and participation in Codex and the work of the SPS and TBT Committees by countries at all levels of development. The final section explores drivers of change likely to affect food standards and trade in the future.
This is the sixth edition of the Aid for Trade at a Glance publication. Since 2007, successive editions of this flagship publication have shed light on the steps being taken by developing country governments and their development partners to leverage trade for development. The 2017 edition adds further weight to the already substantial body of evidence highlighting the effectiveness of aid for trade. It focuses on how and why trade connectivity is critical for inclusiveness, sustainable growth and poverty reduction. It is intended to inform both practice and policy regarding aid for trade’s contribution to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The publication sheds light on various examples of how the private sector is helping MSMEs, women, and rural populations to connect to the global economy. The private sector is vital to bridging the digital divide and more should be done to solicit their views on policy choices and public investment, and promote public-private collaboration for boosting connectivity. Moving ahead, both developing countries and their development partners expect a scaling up of digital connectivity and e-commerce programmes. Findings show that the better the physical and digital connectivity, the more it contributes to market access, financial inclusion, women’s economic empowerment and poverty reduction. These impacts get amplified when the public and private sector work together to build the institutional and physical capacity to help the poor connect and compete.
The guide explaining the significance of the WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation and the reasons why it was proposed aims at helping business communities in developing countries understand the obligations that these countries have taken on or will do so in the future; gives an overview of the main provisions of the agreement; explains how it is intended to ease border controls for business, and how business can still influence the way that governments implement the obligations and specific commitments they have undertaken in reaching the Agreement; includes bibliographical references.
The world is complex. The World Trade Organization is complex. This booklet is brief, but it tries to reflect the complex and dynamic nature of trade and the WTO’s trade rules. It highlights benefits of the trading system, but it doesn’t claim that everything is perfect. Were it a perfect system, there would be no need for further negotiations and for the system to evolve and reform continually. Nor does this booklet claim that everyone agrees about everything in the WTO. That’s one of the most important reasons for having the system: it’s a forum for countries to thrash out their differences on trade issues. That said, there are a number of reasons why we’re better off with the system than without it.
Proceedings of 2014 Trade Promotion Organizations (TPO) Network World Conference and Awards held in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, on 3 - 5 November 2014, addressing the theme ‘From export promotion to internationalization’, reflects the debates, discussions and key messages of the conference and showcases the winners of the 2014 TPO Network Awards; reviews the recent trend in the business support environment to merge trade and investment activities; discusses the benefits and opportunities for TPOs and their beneficiaries such as trade facilitation, diversifying exports towards emerging markets and integrating SMEs into value chains.
Developing linkages between TPOs is an important part of knowledge sharing and the development of expertise. This 2015 Directory of Trade Promotion Organizations provides an opportunity for this connection and is a tool to build a strong network of TPOs worldwide.
“World Trade Statistical Review” provides a detailed analysis of the latest developments in world trade. It will be produced on an annual basis and replaces “International Trade Statistics”, the WTO’s former annual statistical publication. All data used in this report, as well as additional charts and tables not included, can be downloaded from the WTO web site at www.wto.org/statistics.
This report examines the integration of North America’s agricultural and food markets as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), implemented in 1994. NAFTA has had a profound effect on many aspects of North American agriculture over the past two decades. With a few exceptions, intraregional agricultural trade is now completely free of tariff and quota restrictions, and the agricultural sectors of the member countries—Canada, Mexico, and the United States—have become far more integrated, as is evidenced by rising trade in a wider range of agricultural products, substantial levels of cross-border investment, and important changes in consumption and production. The report also examines recent disputes among its constituents and identifies opportunities for further reforms of mutual benefit to the member countries, with particular attention devoted to the NAFTA governments’ efforts to seek deeper regional integration through such means as regulatory cooperation and modifying the agreement’s rules of origin and broader access to markets in other parts of the world through the negotiation of additional free-trade agreements.
The 2014 Annual Report is split into three main sections. The first contains a message from the WTO Director-General. The second section provides a brief overview of 2013 and some background information on the WTO, while the third has more in-depth information.
This report endeavors to provide an analytical input into that debate. It explores the channels through which innovation promotes growth, and the ecosystems in which innovation flourishes. In so doing, the report pays special attention to the role of the intellectual property (IP) system, which at its heart seeks to support innovative activity. In addition to reviewing historical patterns of growth and conceptualizing the linkages between innovation and growth, the report’s main analytical contribution consists of six case studies of breakthrough innovations. In particular, it focuses on three historical innovations and three innovations which currently hold breakthrough potential (see table). Through case studies, one can take account of the different nature of innovative breakthroughs and the evolving context in which innovation takes place. In addition, even though many conclusions are specific to the six cases and may not be generalizable, the commonalities and differences presented by the cases offer food for thought on which policy approaches work best in alternative circumstances.
Presentation by Andrea Davis providing common issues, SWOT analysis and recommended strategiesfor the Jamaican music industry.
This report significantly improves upon official measurement of music’s economic contribution. It presents a robust definition of the core music industry, informed by a clear rationale. It identifies all forms of revenue that are captured within this definition and measures the GVA (Gross Value Added), export and employment directly contributed by these activities.
The objective of this report is to present the main findings of the survey for the market for Fresh fruit and vegetables. It details consumers’ satisfaction with various aspects of this market. The first level of analysis aims to describe consumers’ feelings about the market and about elements that constitute their retailer’s services as well as the problems encountered when purchasing its products. For each question asked in the questionnaire, a chart presents the results at EU and country level. When relevant, we also highlight the differences by distribution channel and socio-demographic profile of the respondent. The main indicator used in the analysis (which is widely admitted amongst the research experts’ community) is the percentage of satisfied and dissatisfied consumers, based on the scores given on a scale from 1 to 10. “Satisfied” are those who gave a satisfaction score of 8 to 10; “dissatisfied” are those who gave a score of 1 to 4. For the clarity of the analysis, we do not show the neutral consumers on the charts or those who could not give an answer to the question (“don’t know”). This is why the figures shown in most of the charts do not add up to 100%. If there are particularly large proportions of Don't know answers this is however mentioned in the text. The second level of analysis presented in this report shows the interaction of key satisfaction indicators so as to explain consumers’ overall satisfaction. For more information, the reader will find the full results of the survey as well as a methodological note, country reports and an overall report on DG SANCO web site:http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/strategy/cons_satisfaction_en.htm
This booklet provides answers to the many questions received on the Economic Partnership Agreements by Louis Mitchell since he took office as European Commissioner for Development policy and relations with the African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries.
This CBI market survey profiles the (organic) coffee, tea and cocoa market in the EU. The (organic) coffee, tea and cocoa market in individual EU countries is discussed in separate market surveys. These market surveys as well as EU export marketing guidelines for (organic) coffee, tea and cocoa can be downloaded from http://www.cbi.nl/marketinfo.
This survey profiles the EU market for precious jewellery and costume jewellery. The precious jewellery market includes jewellery pieces made of gold, platinum or silver all of which can be in plain form or with (semi-) precious gemstones, diamonds or pearls. The costume jewellery market includes imitation jewellery pieces of base metal plain or with semi-precious stones, glass, beads or crystals. It also includes imitation jewellery of any other material, cuff links and hair accessories. This survey excludes second-hand jewellery and luxury goods such as gold and silver smith’s ware (tableware, toilet ware, smokers’ requisites etc.) and watches.
The Nutmeg Sector Strategy has been developed to address the revitalization of this important Sector. The methodology for developing the Strategy has been participatory, using the Value Chain Approach with inputs from over 70 sector stakeholders drawn from the private and public sectors. This partnership is a part of the E.U. funded All ACP Agriculture Commodities Programme (AAACP) with the leadership from the Ministry of Agriculture, Lands, Forestry and Fisheries and the International Trade Centre (I.T.C.). Grenada is the second largest world producer of nutmegs and mace after Indonesia, and is known for high quality nutmegs and as the only producer of the world’s No.1 mace. Traditionally, nutmeg and mace have been exported mainly to Europe to be used primarily in meat preservation and sausage making. In addition to its values in the culinary field, there is now strong evidence to support its usage in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. Though recognised for its superior product, Grenada lags behind in market research and development and its potential is limited because of the lack of an appropriate Market Information System (M.I.S.) to facilitate the gathering, processing and storage of domestic and international trade data so vital for informed decision-making. This Strategy is designed to provide opportunities and potential for the Sector – its stakeholders and beneficiaries. It is anticipated that its implementation would generally enhance Grenada’s economic development and would specifically contribute in a meaningful way to the rejuvenation of the rural economy.
This EU market survey profiles the EU market for fresh fruit and vegetables and consists of two parts. Part A provides market information for he major national markets within the EU and providing statistical market information on consumption, production and trade, and information on trade structure. The selected markets are: The Netherlands, Germany, France, the UK, Italy, Spain and Belgium. Part A also covers the requirements of the EU market in terms of product quality, packaging, labelling and social, health & safety and environmental standards. After having read Part A, it is important for an exporter to analyse the target markets, sales channels and potential customers in order to formulate marketing and product strategies. Part B subsequently aims to assist (potential) exporters in developing countries in their export-decision-making process. Exporters are advised to consult CBI’s Export Planner, a guide that shows how to set up export activities systematically, before using the marketing guidelines in this publication.
Cultivation of cocoa is a delicate process, as the trees are susceptible to changing weather patterns, diseases, and insects. Unlike larger, industrialized agribusinesses, the vast majority of cocoa comes from small, family-run farms, which often rely on outdated farming practices and have limited organizational leverage. Steadily increasing demand from worldwide consumers encourages a number of global efforts and funds committed to support and improve cocoa farm sustainability. This cocoa market updated looks at production, consumption, value chain and price of cocoa.
The report "Profiling Caribbean Women Entrepreneurs: Business Environment, Sectoral Constraints and Programming Lessons" is available at http://www.infodev.org/EPIC. This report seeks to redress the current paucity of information on growth-oriented women entrepreneurs in the Caribbean region by drawing on various data sources to estimate their numbers and sectoral focus. At the same time, it develops an understanding of the main issues facing women in their businesses and their future growth potential.
Three main concepts are used throughout the report: entrepreneurship, innovation, and growth-orientation. Entrepreneurship is used in its widest sense in relation to the support environment and the process of starting and running businesses. Innovation is considered the launching of new or improved products, services, processes, or business models to drive differentiation and/or efficiency for enhanced competitiveness. Growth orientation relates to individual drive, ambition, and potential to grow a business, while growth potential relates to the potential of the sector to grow.
Using micro-level data, this publication provides new and insightful findings on the determinants of firm innovation and productivity in a region with scarce empirical research: the Caribbean. Until very recently, the Caribbean did not have internationally comparable, statistically relevant data at the firm level to perform empirical analysis of what drives firm performance and innovation. The chapters that make up this publication use two datasets to examine the impact of different variables related to innovation and firm performance that are of interest to regional policymakers. The chapters are part of the “Cutting Edge Research on Productivity, Technology and Innovation” (RGCC1066) research project, which was coordinated by the Competitiveness and Innovation Division of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). As a collection, the chapters seek to unearth the relationship between different variables of interest and their impact on innovation, productivity, and/or performance at the firm level. In turn, the variables of interest have been chosen to align with major areas of concern for policymakers in the Caribbean.
Increased global integration affects groups of individuals differently. This paper examines ways in which greater integration through trade impacts women and men differently, and ensuing implications for growth. The paper finds that trade creates jobs for women in export-oriented sectors. Jobs that bring more household resources under women’s control lead to greater investments in the health and education of future generations. Although women are more than ever formally employed, differences in wages earned by men and women persist in all countries. Women also have less access to productive resources, time and, particularly in many developing countries, education. Professional women continue to encounter discrimination in hiring and promotion, including in OECD countries. The impact of trade liberalisation on women is important not only because they represent over half of any population, but also because they face constraints which make them less able to benefit from liberalisation. Once different impacts are ascertained, well-designed policy responses may aid women in taking advantage of greater openness to trade. All Trade Policy Working Papers are now available through the OECD’s Internet website at: http://www.oecd.org/trade.
This paper identifies best practices and provides policy guidance on how public policy can promote the participation of women entrepreneurs, women producers and women-led export firms in accessing market opportunities through trade agreements. It has been prepared for regional workshops of the "Gender Equity and Canadian Free Trade Agreements (FTAs)" sub-project of the Canada-Americas Trade Related Technical Assistance Program (CATRTA).
Specifically, the paper:
The paper is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the literature on gender and trade liberalization, but rather a pragmatic reference guide, which can be used by a range of stakeholders in Colombia, Peru and Canada.
This report aims to help unlock business opportunities that advance the health, rights, and wellbeing of women in global value chains. It highlights the benefits of investing in women along the value chain and provides a framework for action and practical guidance for companies to identify and strengthen value-chain investment opportunities that deliver positive returns to business, women, and society. This report is not an exhaustive analysis of the ways companies impact women’s empowerment, or the way women’s empowerment impacts businesses. Rather, it should serve as an inspirational guide to help both new and experienced companies develop effective approaches to women’s empowerment. While the report is designed for a diverse industry audience, some examples and recommendations may be more relevant to consumer products companies with a strong manufacturing supply chain than service companies.
This report builds on a number of studies that emphasize the importance of a holistic and integrated approach to women’s empowerment, including a recent report on building effective women’s economic empowerment strategies published by BSR and the International Center for Research on Women and commissioned by the Oak Foundation.1 It also draws on a review of the latest literature on corporate engagement in women’s empowerment and a series of interviews with companies to test the framework and gather insights on key gaps, opportunities, and solutions. It also incorporates feedback and perspectives from participants at the private sector pre-conference held prior to the global Women Deliver conference in May 2016. For more information, please contact Indiana Vieljeux (email@example.com).
This book is designed to identify and explain the basic income streams that exist in the worldwide music industry for musical authors and performers (and also for phonogram producers, publishers and anyone involved in the music industry). It is intended primarily to reveal to authors and performers the most effective way to generate income from their talent and endeavors, and the best way to achieve fair arrangements for the exploitation of their songwriting and performances without being ripped off. It also explains the importance of good management and provides guidelines on finding a manager and reaching a fair agreement regarding the conditions of an artist/management contract.
IFPI’s latest Digital Music Report which gives an excellent overview of how the music industry is investing and adapting in the digital world. Copyright provides the basis of the modern digital music marketplace. Confidence in copyright enables rights holders to license exciting new services that music fans love. This new digital world has brought great new ways to access culture. At the same time, technological change has forced us to ask a fundamental question — what does this mean for copyright and the rights of creators? The answer is clear: while the formats have changed, the music remains. In a world of constant change, music is something of lasting value.
This report is about the teamwork and the investment that lie behind the success of every recording artist. It is about how the talent of the musician combines with all the skills of the team working with them to produce recordings that inspire audiences around the world. Investment in music cannot be taken for granted. Like the creativity of the artist, it is something that needs to be supported and protected by a secure legal environment. That is why a safe, adequate copyright framework for artists and labels is so crucial. It is more crucial than ever before in today’s digital world, where copyright is fighting for its place against those who would have music and culture disseminated for free or who would erode copyright protections in the name of "copyright reform". Investing in Music is full of information, statistics and case studies about the work of the music industry.
This booklet on “Opportunities in the CARIFORUM-EC EPA for Barbadian Entertainers and other Cultural Services Suppliers” is the third in a series of publications intended to provide industry stakeholders and interested members of the general public with a concise but clear picture of the key provisions of the Agreement. The two earlier booklets covered “Tourism & Travel-related Services in the CARIFORUMEC Economic Partnership Agreement” and “The CARIFORUM-EU Economic Partnership Agreement: A Tool for Stimulating Innovation in Barbados”.
The data in this document is based on Combined Nomenclature (CN) codes provided by Eurostat. The EU uses the CN classification to categorise goods for international trade statistics. Table 1 mentions the HS codes of spices and herbs used for the statistical analysis in this document. Apart from thyme and bay leaves the codes only concern spices. Therefore the trade statistics in this document apply only to spices unless stated otherwise. This should be taken into account whenever the term spices and herbs is used.
The EU spice and herb market is increasingly characterised by structural change. Growing scarcity on the world market is an important accelerator of this change. Rising prices are increasingly allowing exporters from developing countries (DCs) to invest in and explore the EU market for value added products. The growing awareness of healthier lifestyles and sustainability also provides opportunities in the high-end of the market. In addition, as a result of internationalisation of diets and the large ethnic population in the EU, consumers increasingly adopt eating and cooking habits which were once considered foreign. Exporters from developing countries need to keep an eye on these changes. Adapting their product portfolio and targeting the right market can be essential in the EU.
Buyer requirements can be divided into (1) musts, requirements you must meet in order to enter the market, such as legal requirements, (2) common requirements, which are those most of your competitors have already implemented, in other words, the ones you need to comply with in order to keep up with the market, and (3) niche market requirements for specific segments.
This study has been commissioned by the Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery in order to articulate the current TLE environment in the Caribbean, identify some of the major challenges, and prescribe general recommendations for formulating a regional negotiating strategy in the trade of Education as a service under the framework of the GATS and in the context of ongoing international and regional negotiations, including the FTAA.
While several OECD countries compete to attract foreign students, some pioneering emerging economies show that an innovative strategy for the import of cross-border education can form a part of a national capacity building strategy. Could this be a suitable model for developing countries to build capacity in tertiary education, and more generally, to accelerate economic development? This chapter argues that this is the case: using cross-border education to build capacity could be an effective strategy, especially when it is accompanied by appropriate policies and regulatory frameworks. Once an overall strategy for capacity building in education is in place, as part of a national capacity building strategy, countries should examine how tertiary (and more broadly post-secondary) education fits into this. A subsequent question concerns whether cross-border tertiary education could play a role in this strategy, and, if so, which. This chapter does not offer definitive answers as these issues are closely connected to the local context of each country. Possible answers will be explored though and an attempt to illustrate the mechanisms that may link cross-border education to capacity building will be made.
This paper explores the possible answers and tries to shed some light on the mechanisms that may link cross-border education to capacity building. The remainder of the paper is organised as follows. The next section defines capacity building and shows that it refers to principles whose validity goes beyond a development assistance context. The third section shows the centrality of education and tertiary education in any capacity building strategy, highlighting a natural privilege of education in capacity building. The fourth section recalls the main arguments explaining why education and tertiary education could lead to economic development and points to some questions and choices a developing country is facing in its education capacity building strategy. The paper then concentrates on the opportunities and challenges of cross-border tertiary education for capacity building in tertiary education. Section 5 shows the reasons why cross-border education could help build capacity in tertiary education; section 6 examines the benefits and drawbacks of the different modes of delivery of cross-border education; section 7 discusses the growth of commercial provision of cross-border education and its positive and negative impacts in developing countries; finally, section 8 points to some of the policies that may help reap the benefits of cross-border education while minimising its risks.
The paper evaluates the performance of export agriculture during 1980 to 2004 for the borrowing member countries of the Caribbean Development Bank, excluding the United Kingdom dependent territories, and critically assesses the issue of food dependence and security. It sketches the broad outlines of a new agriculture policy for the Caribbean region, taking into consideration the new challenges (trade liberalisation, increased use of sanitary and phytosanitary barriers, etc.), concerns (food safety, quality, security) and opportunities (rising food prices as a result of increased demand related to global population and income growth, possible diversification into high value products, expansion of niche markets, such as for organic and fair trade products, etc.) presented by the current international environment.
This report is the first major document of its kind. It seeks to highlight objectives, strategies and actions necessary for the conservation and sustainable utilization of Barbados’ biological resources. It is envisaged that this document will serve as a repository for local biodiversity information to all citizens, as well as international interests. The NBSAP is also designed to provide the framework for effective management of local biological diversity and to guide future activities of the biodiversity programme in the Ministry. The principal topics examined in the NBSAP are - the local biological diversity status, the issues which affect the livelihood of terrestrial, marine and freshwater biodiversity and a conservation and sustainable management plan. The strategy and action plan takes into consideration mobilization of funding; capacity building; legislation and policy revision and formulation; research, monitoring and mitigation; public education; incentives development; land use planning; in situ and ex situ conservation; biodiversity access and benefit sharing; biosafety and biotechnology transfer; and various sectoral environmental initiatives.