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The WTO Agreement on TBT encourages countries to use international standards in formulating technical regulations and voluntary standards, and in trade. It also requires that countries use guidelines and recommendations developed by international standardization organizations as the basis for their conformity assessment procedures.
Lists associations in OECD countries involved in the import/export trade. Gives addresses, product imported, level of membership and associated publications. Includes separate alphabetical product list which includes SITC Rev 2 codes and country information. For further information visit http://www.intracen.org/itc/trade-support/importers-associations/.
Presentation at a public lecture at the Errol Barrow Centre for Creative Imagination, cave Hill Campus, University of the West Indies, March 11, 2008.
The aim of the National Export Strategy 2015-2019 is to help guide the development of priority sectors’ towards the achievement of the national economic goals of Jamaica. A number of methodologies and tools were employed to achieve the objectives of the NES development process. One of the cornerstone methodologies employed was extensive stakeholder consultation. A number of stakeholders were consulted prior to and during the NES development process through interviews, one-on-one meetings and focus group sessions. In addition, a Validation Workshop was held on January 21st and 22nd 2015, where stakeholders had the opportunity to pro-actively engage in the action planning process. Subsequently, stakeholders have been given an opportunity to review the draft National Export Strategy document and provide comments and feedback, which were taken into consideration in finalising the strategy.
A key methodology was visioning. The vision for the various priority sectors and crosscutting areas, as well as the overall vision for export development in Jamaica were crafted based on consultations with stakeholders and review of other strategic initiatives and policies. Some of the specific visions were taken directly from the National Export Strategy 2010-2013. Others were adapted from the Vision 2030 Jamaica – National Development Plan. All vision statements however, were reviewed by stakeholders and confirmed at the Validation Workshop. Stakeholders were also given the opportunity to offer feedback during the strategy finalisation process. An overview of the vision for the National Export Strategy 2015-2019 is presented in the figure below.
The study is divided in 2 chapters. The first one refers to the market structure in the Dominican Republic and the analysis of the possible venues to host CGCS 2009; and the second one refers to the characteristics of the handcraft market in Puerto Rico. In the first chapter we will see the definitions of the terms that we will use in the study and in the present document, in order to continue with the quantitative and qualitative result thrown by the market investigation made in Dominican Republic. Chapter 2 will address the differential characteristics of the Puerto Rican market. Hard copy only.
The fundamental objective of the Agreement shall be to strengthen the commercial and economic relations between the Parties through: the establishment of a Free Trade Area between the Parties consistent with the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organisation (the WTO);
The fundamental objective of this Agreement shall be to strengthen the trade and economic relations and technical cooperation between the Parties through:
(a) the promotion and expansion of the sale of goods originating in CARICOM and Colombia with particular emphasis on exports from CARICOM States in the early stages of the implementation of this Agreement;
(b) the promotion and protection of investments aimed at taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the markets of the Parties and strengthening their competitiveness in the international market;
(c) the facilitation of the creation and operation of regional joint ventures;
(d) the development of technical and scientific cooperation activities which may be agreed upon between the Parties;
(e) the promotion of private sector activities, including business exchanges between the Parties.
The Guide to US Food Labelling Law provides guidance on how to comply with the requirements of the Nutrition Labelling and Education Act of 1990. It explains the law and provides advice on avoiding enforcement actions by regulatory agencies. It includes information on the history of food labelling laws, the role of government agencies and the rules applying to dietary supplement labelling. For further information visit http://www.thompson.com/public/offerpage.jsp?promo=FOOD.
The research was conducted on five countries and with data collected on a number of sectors. The countries selected were Barbados, Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. This selection sought to anticipate differences in the effects of different patterns of development in the larger countries vis-à-vis a possible divergent experience in the Windward and Leeward Islands.
International trade may appear to be a complex undertaking requiring extensive Resources, a large and expensive marketing and export department, a significant volume of the product to be marketed, and fluency in the language of the targeted countries. This is not the case. The goal of this handbook is to lay these myths to rest and open the world of exporting to companies that have previously abandoned the idea and new-to-export-companies. We will begin by exploring common misconceptions. The remainder of the handbook expands upon important issues for a successful export business.
Provides information on WIPO Patent Information Services for developing countries (WPIS), their usefulness and how they contribute to research and development activities and industrial development projects of developing countries.
This report is the 21st in a series of reports prepared by the U.S. International Trade Commission (Commission) under section 215 of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act (CBERA) of 1983 (19 U.S.C. 2704). Section 215 requires the Commission to submit to Congress and the President biennial reports regarding the economic impact of the CBERA program on U.S. industries and consumers, and on the economy of the beneficiary countries. As part of its report the Commission is required, first, to include an assessment of the actual effect, during the period covered by the report, of the program on the U.S. economy generally as well as on specific domestic industries which produce articles that are like or directly competitive with articles being imported into the United States from beneficiary countries. Second, the Commission is required to provide an assessment of the probable future effect that the program will have on the U.S. economy generally, as well as on domestic industries, before the provisions of the program terminate. This report covers the period 2011–12.
This study has captured a great deal of information on the investment climate in each of the 7 countries covered. Unfortunately, uniform data were not available across all countries, making it difficult to carry out quantitative regional comparisons to establish competitiveness in all the areas surveyed. Where comparable data are available, which is mainly in infrastructure, comparisons on key indicators have been made if useful. In all areas of the investment climate examined, the qualitative information gathered helped supplement or stand in for the numerical data and using the totality of information available allows for some useful analysis.
This report examines the international law relating to trade in services as it relates to the member states of the Caribbean Community in the new era of the WTO and GATS. Discusses the extent to which requirements of the new law needs in principle to be met by legislation at the national level and examines the aspects of the law of Commonwealth Caribbean countries which pose, or are capable of posing obstacles to free trade in services. Hard copy only.
Technological innovation may be classified in several ways: product vs. process, radical (basic or fundamental) vs. incremental (improvement), and disruptive vs. sustaining (sequential and/or complementary). Other important types of (non-technological) innovations that do not result from scientific and/or technological R&D, but are often crucial for profitably marketing the products and services resulting from the investment made in R&D are: marketing innovation, institutional innovation, and complementary innovation. In this article, however, the focus is on technological innovations. Nowadays, it is generally accepted that in a knowledge-driven, competitive business environment, technological innovation (hereafter, for the sake of simplicity, simply called ‘innovation’) is a principal determinant of successful firm performance. But differences of opinion persist amongst economists and policymakers about the exact role of intellectual property (IP) in relation to innovation. On the one hand, in theory, the IP system is considered to be absolutely necessary “to encourage creative intellectual endeavor in the public interest, and on the other, some observers believe that, in practice, the IP system hinders competition to the extent that it is often seen to be playing a negative role in innovation. Hence the need for a systematic and periodic study and review of the actual use by businesses of the tools of the IP system so that economists are able to provide empirical, evidence-based guidance to policymakers to adapt the IP system so that it continues to serve the conflicting private and public interest in spurring further innovation and its wide diffusion in the shortest possible time. This article, however, does not deal with these otherwise important aspects.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Canada. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Canada.
This document consists of two main parts: a compartive study of the provisions in the Chile-US free trade agreement and the Dominican Republic-Central America- US Free trade Agreement; and comprative matrix of the legal text of the Agreements.
Explores the relevance of economies of scale, less diversification and macroeconomic policy autonomy, both at the conceptual and empirical level focusing on the Caribbean economies. Section I takes a look at the relationship between country size, specialisation and growth. Section II explores the effects of vulnerability to external shocks and limited macro-economic autonomy. Section III examines implications for national, regional and global policies.
Please visit http://www.sice.oas.org/ctyindex/LCA/LCANatlDocs_e.asp to download this document and other related documents on Saint Lucia.
Please visit http://www.sice.oas.org/ctyindex/GRD/GRDNatlDocs_e.asp to download this document and other related information on Grenada.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Dominica. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Dominica.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Cuba. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Cuba.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Antigua and Barbuda. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Antigua and Barbuda.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Barbados. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Barbados.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Cost Rica. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Costa Rica.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Belize. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Belize.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Curacao. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Curacao.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Guadeloupe. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Guadeloupe.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Haiti. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Haiti.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Martinique. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Martinique.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the St. Kitts and Nevis. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the St. Kitts and Nevis.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in the Suriname. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within the Suriname.
A study of best practice reveals that three elements are critical to an efficient trade policy process: government leadership, institutional capacity and the inclusion of all actors, including the relevant ministries (not just those in charge of ‘trade’), the business sector, trade promotion and regulatory bodies, think-tanks and other civil-society organisations. In countries in which this process is either inefficient or close to non-existent, donors need to seek to support its structuring and sustainability. Yet the various reports that constitute the background of this paper show that, while they do so to some extent, they generally operate in a dispersed manner, and very rarely adopt a comprehensive approach. The second part of the paper highlights some of the main success factors, as well as the common limitations, of TCD, based on the experiences of donors and recipients in Africa and the Caribbean.
This paper analyses the recent evolution and impact of the global economic crisis on the offshore services industry. Using a global value chains framework, the authors classify the offshore services sector in a comprehensive set of general and industry-specific activities that correspond to different segments and stages in the value-adding process for services. They analyse the impact of the economic crisis on the industry. The paper concludes that the offshore services industry will continue to offer growth opportunities for developing countries not only among existing market players, but also a range of new countries. The industry has the potential to become an important source for employment and economic growth around the globe. Download the paper at: http://go.worldbank.org/1QK77PG4W0.
Reviews 100 websites of trade support institutions and other trade providers. Highlights the large variety of dissemination options available to trade information providers. Hard copy only.
The study involved a series of ten developing country case studies and a survey of SPS contact/enquiry points in all low- and middle-income countries that are members of the WTO and/or Codex Alimentarius. In many cases the impact of SPS measures could not be quantified and the results should be interpreted with care. However, the study does highlight a number of key issues and gives credence to the concerns that developing countries have themselves expressed about the impact of developed country SPS requirements and the weaknesses of the SPS Agreement.
This paper firstly explores the share of EU imports which is subject to duties, how much of the dutiable imports that is covered by trade preferences and how deep these preferences are. Secondly,it analyses the extent to which EU trade preferences are being used. These factors are explored for more countries/country grouping and sectors over a longer and more recent period of time (2003-2007) compared to previous studies. The paper further presents estimates of actual preference margins by developing country groups and sectors, aggregated from tariff line level. In a gravity model setting, the preferential margins then provide a more refined measure of trade preference compared to binary variables commonly used in the literature. Regressing these measure on EU preferential imports, as opposed to total imports, introduces another novelty compared to methods used in other studies.
As part of the Hub initiative this Training Manual has been prepared for ongoing use by the BPSA-PSTT and others involved in proposal writing for the private sector. Its purpose is to assist private sector organisations to: i: better understand donor requirements; ii: convert their business needs into Results Based development proposals; and iii: obtain grant funding. The Manual presents a generic, Results Based approach to project design and proposal writing while providing examples of approaches and templates used by specific donor agencies. In following these guidelines to proposal writing, private sector organisations will build appreciation of the Results Based management practices and effective decision making required by donor agencies and funders throughout the project management cycle from the identification of the business idea, problem or opportunity, through to project and proposal formulation, implementation and evaluation.
This document provides an overview of socio-ecomonic conditions in Brazil. Looks at government's attitude and incentives, the business environment, investment climate, market access conditions, general marketing factors and cultural practices in the country. Also provides general information including population, geography, political system and transport infrastructure within Brazil.
The consultations with the private sector were organized through coordinators representing the institutional private sector structures within the integration groupings as well as regional business associations. This document includes the inputs from the following organizations: Federation of Chambers of Commerce of Central America (FECAMCO); Caribbean Association of Industry and Commerce (CAIC); Council of the Americas; Latin American Business Council (CEAL); Business Technical Advisory Committee on Labor Matters (CEATAL); Latin American and Caribbean Association of Information Technology Entities (ALETI); The Andean Business Advisory Council; Private Sector of the Americas and the business sector of the Economic-Social Consultative Forum of Mercosur.
This policy briefing from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) calls for a new approach for Haiti’s reconstruction and long-term economic development based on increasing and improving State capacities and respecting the country’s ownership of the process. It says recovery must be a shared responsibility between Haiti and its development partners, but donor generosity is only one component of success. The new approach to international cooperation should target investment in productive capacity and infrastructure, improved market access, domestic resource mobilization, and greater agricultural productivity. It must constitute an integrated approach to macroeconomic, industrial and trade policy to generate employment and reduce poverty. The document is available at http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/presspb20103_en.pdf
CDB, in association with the Caribbean Association of Industry and Commerce (CAIC), invited regional private sector interests, regional financiers, multilateral institutions, donor agencies and regional and international organisations to participate in a Summit to determine the needs and priorities of the regional private sector and to explore ways of addressing these needs.
More broadly, the Summit had the following objectives that were largely met:
This publication outlines the procedures for setting up and operating a business in Barbados.
Following a series of negotiation sessions, with the last session having taken place on March 11, 2010, the EU and the ACP parties have reached agreement on the included set of text proposals. This document provides information on the changes to the Cotonou Agreement - agreed consolidated text, March 11, 2010.
The paper is divided into six sections. The first section discusses the issue from a conceptual viewpoint, examining and reviewing the Central American precedents. The second section looks at the approach that the DR-CAFTA has adopted in terms of its application, and the nature of its obligations. The third section analyzes the relationship between the DR-CAFTA and Central American integration instrument, with reference to their general rules and to the concrete implications of those in each of the thematic area of the agreement. The fourth section reviews the application of the agreement between each Central American Country and the DR. The fifth section dicusses some considerations with respect to the oppoertunities and challenges of the multilateral application of the agreement.The sixth section offers some final comments.
Paper presented by Delisle Worrell at the 3rd Meeting of Caribbean Business Support Organisations, held in the Dominican Republic from March 24-25, 2009, under the theme "Remaining Competitive in a Global Crisis."
The World Tariff Profi les is a joint publication of the WTO, ITC and UNCTAD devoted to market access for goods. This statistical yearbook contains a comprehensive compilation of the main tariff parameters for each of the 153 WTO Members and other countries and customs territories. Each country profile presents information on tariffs imposed by each economy on its imports complemented with an analysis of the market access conditions it faces in its major export markets. The publication is presented in three main parts. The first part shows summary statistics for all countries and territories for all products, as well as a break-down into agricultural and non-agricultural products. The second part shows for each of these countries and territories, one full page with disaggregation by sectors and duty ranges. It also contains a section on the market access conditions faced in their respective major export markets. The third part contains a summary table on concessions on Other Duties and Charges (ODCs).
From the historical outline of this debate, four apparently distinct periods, which are now merging into the present fifth period or phase, will be identified. The first phase is that which immediately follows April 1970, and goes to the middle of the 1970s. It is noteworthy that as early as 1947, a Meeting of West Indian Governors reportedly reflected on the need for a West Indian Court of Appeal and urged its establishment. The hallmark of the immediate post Pratt and Morgan period is emotionalism and a departure from rationalism in the debate. The period also witnessed the rise of two factions which express support or otherwise for the establishment of a Caribbean final court in accordance with their various positions on capital punishment. Emerging from the emotionalism which was thrown up by the Pratt and Morgan decision, Part III of this paper considers emotionalism as an issue in the debate. It seeks to show that emotionalism featured prominently in the termination of appeals to the Privy Council from some other Commonwealth jurisdictions. It also looks briefly at emotionalism in the context of the debate in the Caribbean. Part IV considers the present state of the debate. It indicates that a degree of emotionalism is still attached to the debate following Pratt and Morgan. However, it highlights the attempts which are being made to move the debate away from the emotional and back to the rational and pragmatic, and which distinguishes this period from the immediate post Pratt and Morgan era. Part V follows the movement to return the debate to the rational. It therefore distills the issues which have been preferred both against and for the establishment of the Caribbean Court of Justice in their classical theoretical context. It goes further, however, to focus on the practical steps which are being taken to address the concerns which have been raised by these issues. Among other considerations, this Part alludes to the extremely critical role which the Court will perform in the deepening of the regional integration movement and the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSM&E). Part VI is, however, substantially dedicated to this aspect, while Part VII looks at the way forward towards the establishment of the Court.
Through the publication of this MERCOSUR Report, INTAL's intention is to facilitate access to information by potential readers who are interested in this region. Furthermore, the aim is to convey the interest that MERCOSUR arises at the sub-regional level, facilitating dissemination to the international community through the publication of a report in English, besides both official languages in the region: Spanish and Portuguese. The period covered by MERCOSUR Report 14 (July 2008-June 2009) was marked by the international crisis. The inflationary phase of the crisis (August 2007-June 2008) fuelled certain expansionary trends in MERCOSUR countries. Once this phase had run its course, MERCOSUR’s performance began to feel the negative effects of the world economy. As of the fourth quarter of 2008, the collapse of activity levels and global trade, falling commodity prices, and financing difficulties were reflected in recessionary trends within the bloc. However, as of March 2009, there were clear signs of stabilization in the world economy, if not of outright recovery. This marks a shift in the international scenario compared to the previous period. http://www.iadb.org/intal/aplicaciones/uploads/publicaciones/i_MERCOSUR_Report_14.pdf
This report reviews current knowledge with respect to four questions: What is the effect of international trade on domestic water resources? What is the effect of water availability on international trade? Can international trade increase global water-use efficiency? And finally, what type of international trade rules would promote a more wise use of water worldwide? For further information visit http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/wtr10_hoekstra_e.htm
A Guide to Investing in Trinidad and Tobago, is written and revised annually by InvesTT Limited (InvesTT), a member of the eTecK group. It is intended to provide investors and potential investors with basic, yet useful information on doing business in Trinidad and Tobago and the investment and tax climate that currently exists. While every effort is taken to make the guide as complete and accurate as possible, it is not intended to be a comprehensive statement of the law or used as a substitute for appropriate professional advice. invesTT waives any responsibility or liability for any errors or facet of opinion herein.
The global economic crisis, and governments’ responses to the crisis, did not precipitate a descent into 1930s-style protectionism. That is a relief. But it provides no refuge from policy measures that will slow down globalisation and growth in the next decade. “Creeping protectionism” is increasing, and the crisis has reinforced trends visible before the start of the crisis. New patterns of protectionism are similar to developments in the 1970s and 1980s rather than the 1930s. Domestic “crisis interventions”, especially in capital and product markets, and the return of Big Government, will spill over to external policy, with more defensive trade policies as a consequence.
The design of good policies will have to be mindful of the danger of excessive reliance on bureaucratic controls. While government leadership is going to be essentia l in correcting the huge externality that is climate change, markets and prices will have to be put to work, so that private sector decisions can lead more naturally to optimal investment and production decisions. Carbon and carbon equivalent gases have to be priced so that using them reflects their true social cost. This should be the essence of mitigation policy. The world has spent decades getting rid of quantity restrictions in many domains, not least foreign trade. This is not the time to come back to a system of ma ssive quotas and bureaucratic controls because of climate change. Emission targets and energy efficiency targets have an important role to play but it is the price system that has to make it easier to achieve our goals. This will require a much deeper dialogue between economists and climate scientists as well as environmentalists than what we have seen so far. We do hope that this Human Development Report will contribute to such a dialogue.
This report seeks to make an analytical contribution in this respect. It does so in two ways. First, it sheds light on global innovation trends – especially those concerning IP – and assesses the ways in which innovation has really changed. Second, it reviews the available evidence on how IP protection affects innovative behavior and what this evidence implies for the design of IP and innovation policies.
The guide provide a comprehensive coverage of the relevant issues of interest to non-state actors and reflects the successful consultation process undertaken with a wide range of stakeholders from the six ACP regions and the European Commission. In particular, the guide also provide practical information and specific answers on the modelities for the enhanced engagement of non-state actors in ACP-EC cooperation.
We have the opportunity in the coming decade to cut world poverty by half. Billions more people could enjoy the fruits of the global economy. Tens of millions of lives can be saved. The practical solutions exist. The political framework is established. And for the first time, the cost is utterly affordable. Whatever one’s motivation for attacking the crisis of extreme poverty—human rights, religious values, security, fiscal prudence, ideology—the solutions are the same. All that is needed is action. This report recommends the way forward. It outlines a way to attain this bold ambition. It describes how to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. This document presents an overview of the findings and recommendations of the UN Millennium Project, an independent advisory body to Secretary - General.
This report provides an assessment of progress with the achievement of the MDGs in the Eastern Caribbean, that is, Barbados and members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), over the period 1990 to 2002. It complements previous UNDP reports prepared on social and economic development in the Eastern Caribbean, namely, the Sub-Regional Common Assessment of Barbados and the OECS (UNDP, 2000) and the OECS Human Development Report 2002 (OECS, 2002). The structure of the presentation is as follows: in sections 2 to 9, an assessment of the eight MDGs in the Eastern Caribbean is undertaken. In section 10, an overall assessment of progress towards the achievement of the MDGs is presented. The final section summarizes the main issues in the report.
Doing Business 2007: Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States is a regional report drawing on the data of the global Doing Business project and database, as well as the findings of Doing Business 2007: How to Reform, an annual report published by the World Bank and the International Finance Corporation. Doing Buisiness analyzes government regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it in 175 countries, including the six independent member states of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS): Antigua and Barbuda, the Commonwealth of Dominica, Grenada, the Federation of St. Christopher (st Kitts) and Nevis, St. lucia and St Vincent and the Grenadines. Quantitative indicators on business regulations and their enforcement can be compared with 169 economies around the world, including 9 other Caribbean economies and 34 small states.
The aim the present study is to gain a deeper understanding of the decision-making of individuals involved in the entrepreneurial process. It is achieved by comparing entrepreneurs with different level of expertise in contexts that are more or less entrepreneurs- inducing.The issues of learning and expertise-investigation of what entrepreneurial knowledge is and how it is applied-are also addressed. Hard copy only.
Review of wooden furniture markets in United States, Canada, China, Japan, Egypt and selected countries in the European Union: France, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxenbourg, Spain, Italy, Denmark, and Sweden. For each country provides overview of basic demand factors and market drivers, domestic furniture industry, market trends and developments, distrbution channels, and market access conditions. Deals with technical standards as well as international and national certification schemes in the furniture sector. Identifies furniture networks and clusters; outlines strategy for developing wooden furniture sector in tropical countries; outlines step-by-step value-added processing of wooden furniture in tropical countries, based on local conditions. Includes statistical data, selection of German furniture standards, list of usefl contacts in China, and list of members of the Global Forest and Trade Network.
Guide focusing on the role of government programmes in public procurement to assist small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in becoming better exporters. Identifies and explains advantages and disadvantages of public procurement programmes designed to assist SMEs. Looks at criteria used for determining eligibility for SME status in various countries. Examines programmes used by selected countries to assist SMEs in a procurement context. Gives guidance on implementation of public procurement programmes designed to assist SMEs. Hard copy only
The reintensification of bi-regional trade and investment relations depends strongly on economic recovery and growth in both regions. However, the relatively low level of economic interaction even prior to the crisis, the Asian crisis itself and the present international economic environment, especially the slowdown of the US economy and the standstill of Japanese economy, cast doubt on the sustained stimulus of the "push" and "pull" factors. For this reason, the governments in both regions have increasingly recognized the need to institutionalize their mechanisms of consultation and possibly to implement joint actions for economic cooperation. From this perspective, the first Ministerial Meeting of EALAF, March 2001, in Santiago, Chile, which renamed itself as FEALAC (Forum for East-Asia-Latin America Cooperation), has earmarked an important step towards "South-South cooperation" between the two regions. Among a wide range of topics to be addressed at this forum, however, in view of the current low levels of economic exchange and great potentials for expansion, economic issues should be a key part of the cooperation process. To meet the challenges and seize the opportunities of an ever more globalized world economy, countries in both regions now find it urgent to target new export markets and to look for the best sources of imports, technology and investment capital.
This paper looks at how the Mexican economy has been shaped by NAFTA and contrasts the Mexican economy o the rest of North America. Looks at four dimensions in which NAFTA may be analyzed; its impact on optimal economic policies, on economic performance, on income distribution and on labor market integration. Discusses the institutional consequences of NAFTA under the premise that institutions matter for economic outcomes. Also presents some lessons for the FTAA negotiating countries.
This paper seeks to demonstrate the tremendous importance of services trade liberalization to economic development. It argues that the Doha Development Agenda, or Doha "Round" of World Trade Organization (WTO) talks provides a once-in-a-generation opportunity to realize multilateral liberalization of international trade and investment in services. The paper describes dozens of instances in which liberalization has led to growth, with special emphasis on five key service sectors that make substantial and unique contributions to economic growth, development, and living standards: Financial services,express delivery, business services, audiovisual services and telecommunications.
The new manual on statistics of International Trade in Services has broadened the statistical view of trade in services froma a subset of the balance of payments to refelect the modes by which services are supplied in practice. This paper highlights the need for adequate classification of services in balance of payments, payments, products and activities as well as for stronger links between them. This paper advocates that EBOPS links to CPC and ISIC should be strengthened, but warns that a complete product basis for EBOPs may be counter productive.
Revised edition of the publication "International Trade Rules: Business Questions about the World Trading System and the WTO" issued in the year 2000 as a technical Paper. Intended mainly for use by small and medium-sized enterprises in developing countries and transisiton economies, it examines the impact of multilateral trade agreements on international trade flows; explains the mechanism for implementing, and the impact of, the WTO Agreements; covers trade barriers, including sanitary regulations and antidumping duties, trade in goods especially agriculatural products and textiles, dispute settlement, regional agreements, trade in services and trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights. Concluding sections look specifically at the WTO system in relation to small and medium-sized enterprises and least developed countries. Hard copy only.
Study focusing on the role and importance of information technology in raising the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises in the international market - identifies critical factors preventing SMEs in developing countries from making optimal use of IT; provides recommendations aimed at SME support institutions as a basis for designing technical assistance services for the business sector; presents case studies illustrating active participation of trade support institutions in this area, in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Hard copy only.
Summary of discussions held at the Executive Forum on National Export Strategies, organised by International Trade Centre, Annecy, France, 26-29 September 1999 - assesses what a national export strategy should encompass with regard to dynamics of current international market environments; looks at process of stategy development and management, reviewing basic questions of leadership and ownership; examines types of institutional linkages and functional relationships required for effective formulation and implementation of broad-based stategies; reviews techniques and issues related to utility and impact assessment of national export strategies; explores implications of electronic commerce, increasing dominance of multinationals, and global outsourcing for national export stategies. Hard copy only.
Study dealing with marketing principles and key managerial decisions facing small and medium-sized enterprises in developing and transition economies, in the light of the WTO Agreement and the multilateral trading system. Identifies and analyses regulatory problems in export markets; includes case studies illustrating in detail how business firms, in a variety of countries and industries, are affected by regulatory change and how they respond to it. Hard copy only.
Handbook focussing on available methods for preventing and resolving commercial disputes. Deals with different types of disputes encountered in international trade and describes methods preventing or resolving them; outlines fundamental principles applicable to international commercial arbitration; explains how to draft an arbitration clause and provides selected model clauses; appendices contain text of major international arbitration conventions and rules, as well as list of arbitration institutions worldwide. Hard copy only.
This booklet provides a sample of the many distinctive Caribbean products representing IP value capture opportunties.
Provides information on the socio-economic, political and business environment in Chile.
This briefing paper is divided into five sections. The first offers a regional overview of FDI in 2010. The second examines FDI trends in Central America, Panama and the Dominican Republic. The third describes the presence China is beginning to build up as an investor in the region. Lastly, the fourth and fifth sections analyse the main foreign investments and business strategies in the telecommunications and software sectors, respectively.
This paper attempts to substantiate that Latin America's recent wave of regional integration is indeed a new regionalism quite different from the old, and hence merits a more comprehensive perspective than in the past. Section II of the paper examines some stylized facts of the Old Regionalism and is accompanied by an Appendix, which outlines the Andean Group’s early Post War initiative, which probably approximated the theoretical ideal of the era. Section III compares the New Regionalism with the Old, drawing distinctions regarding the key features of regional integration and development policy. In Section IV, these differences are expanded by briefly considering some indicators of New Regionalism trade patterns. Section V outlines how some of the Old Regionalism characteristics linger on in the New Regionalism, and is followed by some concluding remarks in section VI.
Guide providing information on trade practices relating to exporting coffee – presents an overview of the world coffee trade and markets; deals with international coffee contracts (Europe and United States), logistics, insurance,dispute resolution, futures markets, risk management and hedging, trade financing, and related management issues; covers coffee quality with a special emphasis on quality control aspects; outlines new trends in the coffee trade such as electronic commerce, niche markets, organic certification, fair trade labelling, and other sustainability schemes; highlights climate change and environmental issues relevant to the coffee industry; includes a list of frequently asked questions from coffee producers and the respective answers.
This paper introduces a new set of financial access indicators for 139 countries across the globe and describes the results of a preliminary analysis of this data set. The new data set builds on previous work using a similar methodology. The new data set features broader country coverage and greater disaggregation by type of financial product and by type of institution supplying the product -- commercial banks, specialised state run savings and development banks, banks with mutual ownership structure (such as cooperatives), and microfinance institutions. The authors use the data to conduct a rough estimation of the number of bank accounts in the world (6.2 billion) as well as the number of banked and unbanked individuals. In developed countries, they estimate 3.2 accounts per adult and 81 per cent of adults banked. By contrast, in developing countries, they estimate only 0.9 accounts per adult and 28 per cent banked. In regression analysis, they find that measures of development and physical infrastructure are positively associated with the indicators of deposit account, loan, and branch penetration. Download the report at: http://go.worldbank.org/48KB1V2M10.
The Preliminary Overview of the Economies of Latin America and the Caribbean is an annual publication prepared by the Economic Development Division of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). This briefing paper was prepared by Daniel Titelman with inputs provided by the following exerts: Cecilia Vera (global economic trends and external sector), Claudia de Camino (external sector), Ricardo Martner, Michael Hanni and Ivonne González (fiscal policy), Ramón Pineda (economic activity, prices, and monetary, exchange-rate and macroprudential policies), Rodrigo Cárcamo and Alejandra Acevedo (monetary, exchange-rate and macroprudential policies), Claudio Aravena (economic activity), Alda Díaz (prices) and Jürgen Weller (employment and wages). The economic projections were produced by Ramón Pineda, Claudio Aravena, Pablo Carvallo, Alejandra Acevedo,Yusuke Tateno and Matías Rojas with input from the ECLAC subregional headquarters and national offices. Alejandra Acevedo, Alda Díaz and María Zambrano were responsible for the processing and presentation of the statistical data and graphical presentations.
Guide describing trade and industry practices, as well as regulations applying to cocoa - traces customs procedures, systems and techniques used at each stage of teh cocoa supply chain; reviews trends in cocoa manufacturing and processing, electronic commerce, cocoa organic farming, fair trade, sustainable production and environmental issues; also provides list of main sector-related trade and industry associations; appendices contain detailed statistical data and list of relevant Internet websites.
Lessons from six case studies illustrate the complex relationships between international trade, vulnerable ecologies and the poor. The studies, taken from Africa, Asia and Latin America and conducted by local researchers, are set in places where the poor live in close proximity to ecologies that are important to global conservation efforts, and focus on the cascading consequences of trade policy for local livelihoods and environmental services. Collectively, the studies show how under-valued common resources are often poorly protected and consequently subject to shifting economic incentives, including those that arise from trade. The studies provide examples where trade works to accelerate the use of natural resources and to exacerbate unsustainable dependencies by the poor, and other examples where trade has the opposite effect. An important conclusion is that local livelihood and technology choices have important consequences for how environmental resources are used and should be taken into account when designing policies to safeguard fragile ecologies. Download the report at: http://go.worldbank.org/7U4CJJZTY0.
This paper identifies the "outlier sectors" and classifies them by primary source advocating protectionism, and analyses the characteristics of each source.
The private sector has an important role to play in the effective development and implementation of trade facilitation strategies beyond investment alone. Public–private partnerships (PPPs) in trade facilitation are valuable in identifying the needs of government and traders, improving transparency and information flows, and promoting viable and sustainable trade facilitation solutions. Current success stories prove that the focus needs to be on an integrated strategy that does not assume a “one-size-fits-all” approach. In Trade Forum No.4, 2009. To download a copy of the latest issue of Trade Forum visit www.tradeforum.org.
The IFIs have played an increasingly active role in this area but the extent and nature has varied significantly between individual IFIs. Helping to establish and support an ECA in the difficult early days has been recognized as an important role for the IFIs to play. Moreover, gaps in the availability of trade finance and working capital -especially for SMEs- which can exist, can be helped by IFI trade facilitation arrangements of various kinds. this report tries to address some of these issues and, after reviewing what some IFIs have done or are doing, makes some recommendations about where IFIs can most usefully be involved, usually as a catalyst.
This fifth edition of the CBI Export Planner guides you along the relevant checkpoints, identifying those differences - and enabling to decide on actions which may lead to success. Since the best guarantee for success is the way you, as managers of your company, set course by setting objectives, this chapter will describe what goals, resources and tools you have at your disposal.
The 1990s witnessed the parallel forces of globalization and regionalization strongly at work. While seemingly contradictory, they are in fact complementary aspects of market development. This paper will focus on the later, and its special aspects of regionalism; i.e., policy driven cooperation. particular attention will be given to recent advances and challenges in two critical aspects of regionalism: regional trade and financial cooperation. The other important area of concern of the paper is how regional development banks are supporting regional initiatives and identifying emerging issues which they should be preparing to deal with.
This edition of the World Investment Report provides valuable analysis that can inform global discussions on how to accelerate progress toward the Millennium Development Goals and shape a long-range vision for a more sustainable future beyond 2015. The Report reveals an encouraging trend: after a decline in 2012, global foreign direct investment flows rose by 9 per cent in 2013, with growth expected to continue in the years to come. This demonstrates the great potential of international investment, along with other financial resources, to help reach the goals of a post-2015 agenda for sustainable development. Transnational corporations can support this effort by creating decent jobs, generating exports, promoting rights, respecting the environment, encouraging local content, paying fair taxes and transferring capital, technology and business contacts to spur development. This year’s World Investment Report offers a global action plan for galvanizing the role of businesses in achieving future sustainable development goals, and enhancing the private sector’s positive economic, social and environmental impacts. The Report identifies the financing gap, especially in vulnerable economies, assesses the primary sources of funds for bridging the gap, and proposes policy options for the future.
This EU Green Paper is part of a consultation to gather views on issues affecting creative and cultural industries in Europe. It looks at capacity building, skills development and promotion of creators internationally. Download the paper from http://ec.europa.eu/culture/our-policy-development/doc/GreenPaper_creative_industries_en.pdf.
This booklet gives a basic outline of the EPA process, summarises the major elements of the agreement and provide an outline of the process required to ensure implementation.
This paper enviseges partnerships through regotiations that will foster the establishments of strong innovation systems within CARIFORUM and Between CARIFORUM and the EC valuable integration within and between the regions making the anticipated contributoion to future sustainable development is also expected. Click link for article http://ictsd.net/downloads/2008/06/spence_paper2.pdf.
The 2010 Report on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Report) describe significant barriers to U.S. food and farm exports arising from measures that foreign governments apply on the ground that they are necessary to protect human, animal, or plant life or health from risks arising from the entry or spread of pests, from plant]or animal]borne pests or diseases, or from additives, contaminants, toxins, or disease-causing organisms in foods, beverages, or feedstuffs. These measures, known in World Trade Organization (WTO) parlance as sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures, play an increasingly critical role in shaping the flow of global trade. This report is focused on SPS measures that appear to be unscientific, unduly burdensome, discriminatory, or otherwise unwarranted and create significant barriers to U.S. exports. Many of these measures are hard to detect and can present particular challenges for small and medium sized enterprises. The report is available for download at: http://www.sice.oas.org/ctyindex/USA/USTR_Reports/SPS_Report_2010.pdf.
According to this study, the world economy grew at an annualized rate of over 5 per cent during the first quarter of 2010, essentially because of strong growth in Asia. Exports from Latin America and the Caribbean are expected to grow by 21.4 per cent this year. Output and trade in Latin America and the Caribbean have also recovered more quickly than expected. This solid revival is largely based on the dynamism of domestic demand, a pick-up in investment and robust exports driven by demand from China and the rest of Asia, and by the normalization of demand in the United States.
Provides information on the objectives of the Commonwealth. Includes papers which discuss economic issues of interest to comonwealth countries. Covers agriculture, food production and rural development, trade agreements, transport, communications, industrial development and computer and information technology. Includes illustrations and maps(General). Also see http://www.commonwealthministers.com/publications.
The publication assesses the barriers preventing small vulnerable economies (SVEs) from achieving their desired outcomes when negotiating trade agreements. Whether it is the limited human or financial resources, or lack of support from civil society or the private sector, the challenges facing small states are numerous. For further information, visit http://www.thecommonwealth.org/news/34580/34581/229597/140910manoeuvring_at_the_margins.htm.
The White Paper identifies nine guiding principles of world class clusters, as well as three challenges, and makes seven proposals for action. It highlights some of the key features of these clusters, including:
• Close and frequent personal contacts between the senior players in the cluster, covering business, academia, and local politicians;
• Excellence in research and education in the appropriate discipline;
• A tight focus on a specialisation;
• A tight geography … at the most a 30 km radius;
• A technological infrastructure that attracts customers, creative talent
• New start-ups; and
• A cultural / lifestyle infrastructure.
Discusses the development of Caribbean usage since 1992, after 'The Dictionary of Caribbean Usage' was completed. This title comprises about 700 items, including words with senses for usages, acronyms and abbreviations that have emerged out of the ecological and cultural domains of the CARICOM territories, from Guyana to Belize. Hard copy only.
Study looking at export promotion schemes which are consistent with international rules on subsidies, and are most frequently used by developing countries. Examines the rules contained in the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (ASCM), covering manufactured goods; highlights rules in the WTO Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) on subsidies, covering certain primary or agricultural products; outlines tools such as duty drawback, export credits and export guarantees, which are at the disposal of countries wishing to promote exports; presents and analyses examples of schemes in place in selected countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
This policy aims to address the issue whether the implementation of commitments under the WTO Agreement on Agriculture enhance or limit the scope th epolicy space that African countries have in addressing food security and sustainable development issues. The analysis also extends to cover potential implication under the agreements related to the Agreement on Agriculture such as the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Meaures, and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade. To address this issue, the paper seeks to answer the following questions: what have been the results of the Uruguay Round from an African perspective; how has the Agreement on Agriculture and otherrelated agreements been implemented and what impact has this had on the scope of the policy mix in terms of food security and sustainable development in the African countries; how may the proposals for current negotiations, if implemented, impact on the food security/sustainable development objectives of African countries?
Business guide focusing on the key features of the services and investment commitments within EC-CARIFORUM Economic Partnership Agreement – part 1 deals with services and investment commitments made by the European Community (EC) granting market access for Caribbean businesses; describes commitments on a sector-by-sector basis, identifying new investment and export opportunities, and the applicable limitations; part 2 outlines trade in services and investment opportunities available, and limitations applicable, to European businesses for each sector in individual Caribbean countries.